The Differences and Similarities of Pneumonia and Tuberculosis

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Updated: Dec 15, 2022
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Pneumonia and also consumption have actually been pestering the citizens of the world for centuries triggering numerous deaths. This took place until the production as well as use prescription antibiotics end up being extra extensively readily available. These two respiratory system infections have many differences, that include their etiology, incidence and also frequency, as well as lots of similarities in their objective and also subject indicators, medical interventions, course, rehabilitation and also impacts.

To explore the connection between pneumonia and also tuberculosis we will take a look at a case study. Joan is a 35-year-old woman that was feeling fine up till a few weeks ago when she develops a sore throat. Considering that her sore throat she had actually been experiencing breast pain, a loss of appetite, coughing as well as a low high temperature so she went to visit her medical professional. Her physician admitted her to the health center with bacterial pneumonia as well as after 3 days of unsuccessful therapy it was found that she had energetic consumption. This misdiagnosis shows the resemblances between the two diseases and also exactly how easily they can be confused.

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Differences in Pneumonia and Tuberculosis Pneumonia

Pneumonia is a severe infection or inflammation of the lungs with exudation as well as loan consolidation. Pneumonia can be a couple of kinds: lobar pneumonia or bronchial pneumonia. Lobar pneumonia influences one wattle of a lung while bronchial pneumonia affects the locations closest to the bronchi (O’Toole, 1992). In the USA over three million people are contaminated with pneumonia each year; 5 percent of which pass away.


There more than 30 causes for pneumonia however there are 4 main reasons which are microbial, viral, mycoplasma as well as fungal (American Lung Association, 1996). Bacterial pneumonia attacks everybody from young to old, nonetheless ‘alcoholics, the debilitated, post- operative people, individuals with respiratory illness or viral infections as well as people who have actually compromised immune systems go to higher danger’ (American Lung Association, 1996). The Pneumococcusis bacteria, which is categorized as Streptococcus pneumoniae, creates bacterial pneumonia and can be stopped by a vaccine. In 20-30% of the situations the infection infects the blood stream (MedicineNet, 1997) which can lead to secondary infections.

Viral pneumonia make up half of all pneumonia instances (American Lung Organization, 1996) unfortunately there is no effective treatment since anti-biotics do not influence viruses. Lots of viral pneumonia situations are an outcome of an influenza infection and generally influence youngsters, however they are not typically serious and also last only a short time (American Lung Association, 1996). The ‘infection gets into the lungs and also multiplies, but there are almost no physical signs of lung tissue becoming full of fluid. It finds a number of its sufferers among those that have pre-existing heart or lung condition or are expecting’ (American Lung Organization, 1996). In the a lot more serious cases it can be made complex with the intrusion of bacteria that may cause symptoms of microbial pneumonia (American Lung Organization, 1996).

Throughout The second world war mycoplasma were determined as the ‘smallest free-living agents of illness in mankind, unclassified as to whether bacteria or viruses, yet having attributes of both’ (American Lung Association, 1996). Mycoplasma pneumonia is ‘often a slowly establishing infection’ (MedicineNet, 1997) that commonly influences older children and also young adults (American Lung Organization, 1996).

The various other primary source of pneumonia is fungal pneumonia. This is triggered by a fungi that creates pneumocystic carinii pneumonia (PCP) and also is often ‘the initial indication of disease in lots of individuals with AIDS and … can be efficiently dealt with in many cases’ (American Lung Organization, 1996).

In Joan’s situation microbial pneumonia was thought since her immune system was deteriorated by her aching throat and her signs and symptoms correlated with pneumonia.

Consumption (TB)

Consumption was found 100 years ago yet still eliminates 3 million people every year (Schlossberg, 1994, p. 1). Cases range from race and also ethnicity. In 1990 the non- Hispanic Blacks had 9, 634 instances while the American Indians as well as Alaskan Locals had 371 cases (Galantino as well as Diocesan, 1994). It is brought on by germs called either Mycobacterium consumption or Tubercle bacillus. Tuberculosis can contaminate any part of the body yet is most often located in the lungs where it creates a lung infection or pneumonia.


There has been a resurgence of TB because of a number of factors that include: 1. the HIV/ AIDS epidemic, 2. the raised variety of immigrants, 3. the boost in destitution, injection substance abuse and also homelessness, 4. inadequate conformity with treatment regiments and 5. the raised variety of residents in long-term centers (Chef & Dresser, 1995).

The tuberculosis microorganisms are spread via the air nonetheless transmission will just occur after prolonged direct exposure. For example, you only have a 50% opportunity to come to be contaminated if you invest eight hours a day for six months with somebody that has active TB (Chef & Cabinet, 1995).

The tuberculosis bacteria go into the air when a TB person coughs, sneezes or talks as well as is after that inhaled. The infection can lie dormant in an individual’s system for years causing them not a problem nonetheless when their immune system is deteriorated it provides the infection a chance to damage free.

Sorts Of TB Therapies

Types of treatment will certainly depend upon whether the person has non-active or energetic tuberculosis. To identify active TB the physician will look at the clients’ signs and symptoms, and outcomes of the skin test, sputum tests, and breast x-rays. An individual has energetic tuberculosis when their body immune system is deteriorated, and they begin to display the signs and symptoms of the condition. They additionally have favorable skin tests, spit examinations and chest x-rays. When this occurs, the therapy is more extreme.

The illness is treated with at least 2 different types of anti-biotics in order to treat the infection. Within a few weeks the prescription antibiotics will certainly build the body’s resistance as well as slow down the poisons of the TB bacterium to stop the individual from being transmittable. An instance of treatment would be short-course radiation treatment, which is using isoniazid (INH), rifampin, as well as pyrazinamide in mix for at least six months (Cook & Dresser, 1995). The medications need to be considered six to twelve months or there might be a reoccurrence. Failure to take the anti-biotics regularly will result in a multi-drug resistant TB (MDR TB) which ‘is much tougher to deal with because the drugs do not kill the germs. MDR TB can be infected others, similar to regular TB’ (American Lung Organization, 1996).

Inactive consumption is when an individual is infected with the tuberculosis germs, but their body immune system has the ability to deal with the infection, as a result only revealing a favorable skin test as well as an unfavorable x-ray and also sputum examination. The client may be infected, however they are not infectious which suggests the medical professional will certainly start a preventative therapy program. This program includes using the medicine isoniazid for six to twelve months to avoid the TB from coming to be energetic in the future.

Once the treatment for Joan’s pneumonia was not successful it was rediagnosed since she remembered her direct exposure to TB when her grandfather acquired it when she was 7 years old. She has been not aware that she has actually been caring the infection in an inactive state for 28 years. Due to her sore throat, which damaged her immune system, her TB came to be energetic for that reason she was given a new treatment plan. This strategy consisted of using isoniazid, rifampin, and pyrazinamide.

The Resemblances of Pneumonia and Consumption

Objective and also Subjective Indicators. Consumption as well as pneumonia have comparable objective and subjective indicators since they both create infection of the lungs. Because of theses similarities in the signs Joan’s situation was easily misdiagnosed without the info of the TB exposure.

The subjective signs are breast pain, headaches, anorexia nervosa, queasiness, tightness of joints or muscles, shortness of breath, fatigue as well as weak point. The person needs to have the ability to tell the doctor these symptoms in order for the appropriate medical diagnosis to be made because of the overlap in between both conditions. The unbiased signs consist of coughing, cools, fever, night sweats and also blood- spotted or brown sputum. These indicators will certainly be visible by the physician.

Clinical Interventions

The analysis treatments for pneumonia and also tuberculosis are additionally similar. The typical procedure is for the physician to obtain a previous medical history in addition to a history of feasible exposure and start of signs. From there a checkup will take place. The doctor will pay attention to the individual’s upper body for crackles. After that, tests such as the CBC blood test, x- rays, blood as well as spit test, biopsy or a bronchoscopy can validate an infection of the lungs. A tuberculosis specific examination is the Mantoux examination which is a skin test that validates the existence of the TB bacteria in the patient’s system.

A conventional treatment would certainly include antibiotics such as penicillin as well as isoniazid (INH) that would treat the infection in the lungs. Or bronchodilators might be made use of to aid keep the respiratory tracts open. Various other treatments might include an appropriate diet regimen or bed remainder. There are few choices when it concerns medical monitoring for pneumonia or consumption. Actually, there is usually only one that is typically utilized. That surgery is thoracentesis, as well as it is made use of to eliminate the pleural effusion from the lungs.

The Course

The course of pneumonia and also consumption can differ from one person to another. In general, the program begins with the advancement of signs as well as the browse through to the physician. After the visit to the physician tests and also examinations will certainly occur to confirm the visibility of pneumonia or tuberculosis. As soon as the infection has been verified drug may be recommended together with feasible bed rest. A prompt healing can take place if: 1. they are young, 2. their body immune system is working well, 3. the illness is caught early and also 4. they are not dealing with other health problems. Most clients will be able to respond to the treatments and start to boost within a couple of weeks.

Throughout the treatment medical analysis, medication monitoring and also bacteriology is completed. They will check the spit twice monthly for TB until the smear is unfavorable and the patient is asymptomatic which typically happens within the first three months (Galantino and Diocesan, 1994). For both conditions they will certainly additionally watch the person for medication adverse effects, resistance and also compliance.

In Joan’s situation, the TB infection was caught far too late to use precautionary treatments but once it transformed energetic it was discovered after 2 weeks.

Bio-Psycho-Social Effects

There are numerous additional biological results from pneumonia as well as consumption. Tuberculosis and also Microbial Pneumonia can go into the body’s blood heavy steam as well as trigger damages or additional infection to any kind of part of the body, which includes the kidney, joints, bones, liver, mind, reproductive organs or urinary system system. Other secondary problems that may emerge from either illness consist of anemia, pleurisy, lung abscess, lung edema, chronic interstitial pneumonia, acute respiratory system failing, empyema, slowing of the intestinal tracts or hyponatremia mwhich is low blood salt (National Jewish Facility for Immunology as well as Respiratory Medicine, 1989).

The client may likewise deal with emotional and social issues throughout the course of the disease. In extreme cases people may be not able to join physical, entertainment, or regular day tasks which might cause social deprivation or clinical depression. Nevertheless most people can anticipate to maintain their jobs, remain with their families throughout the therapy and lead normal lives.

In Joan’s case she was hospitalized so had become socially robbed as well as was ending up being extremely depressed. This remains in part because of the fact her therapy was inefficient for the first three days from the misdiagnoses.

Objectives and also Interventions for the Pneumonia or Consumption Person

To assist in the recovery of individuals who have pneumonia or TB there will certainly be interventions from the Physiotherapist, Breathing Therapist as well as Social Worker. Each career will certainly have functions in motivating, supporting and boosting the useful ability of the individual. The most typical objectives of treatment consist of: 1. to lower pain, to facilitate the exchange of oxygen as well as co2 in the lungs, 3. to stop atrophy from the boosted bed remainder, and also to stop social withdrawal.

Recovery Goals and Interventions

  • Keep or boost muscular tissue toughness throughout reduced activity -give a progressive resisting workout program -advertise weight bearing activities take part in recreational activities as well as self-care activities.
  • Maintain or boost movement of soft tissue and joints during bed rest and also decreased degree of activity – give passive and also active range of movement -entertainment activities incorporating cardio, stretching, and also reinforcing.
  • Create, enhance, restore or maintain coordination – practice skills with walking, dressing, health as well as standing.
  • Advertise psych-social adjustment to special needs as well as stop social withdrawal – inform to adjust way of living – obtain associated with support groups and social interactions – body positions that reduce pain – Social Worker may help below.
  • Reduction of breast discomfort as well as help in respiration – make use of breast physio, oxygen treatments and also respiratoy therapy – show effective breathing methods and also postural water drainage to maintain air passages open.
  • Avoidance of reoccurrence – preventative treatment that consists of education and learning on correct diet regimen Joan was described see a Physiotherapist, Breathing Specialist and also Social Worker. Her objectives where to reduce her pain, education and learning to adjust her way of life and in various body positions that will advertise easier breathing.

The Social Worker was likewise there to motivate her to join a support system to assist her manage the restrictions from her illness.

Final thought

Annually countless individuals throughout the globe are impacted by the pneumonia and consumption disease. These 2 breathing infections have similarities as well as distinctions. These similarities originate from the truth that both diseases strike a person’s lungs triggering swelling as well as loan consolidation. In fact, consumption is a persistent infection that can impact the lungs and trigger pneumonia. Because both infections create debt consolidation indications like coughing, chest discomfort and also shortness of breath are discovered in pneumonia as well as tuberculosis.

The issue with these similarities, as was seen in Joan’s case, is that it can be conveniently misdiagnosed when the appropriate tests are not used. The distinctions in the two infections are mainly simply in their etiologies. For pneumonia there more than 30 various reasons, but the four major classifications are microbial, viral, mycoplasma and also fungal while tuberculosis is just caused by a bacteria called Tubercle bacillus. Fortunately, pneumonia as well as consumption can be kept under control with making use of anti-biotics and also the earlier that the infection is captured the much better chance of a timely recuperation.

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The Differences and Similarities of Pneumonia and Tuberculosis. (2022, Dec 15). Retrieved from