Mindfulness and Mediation in Evidence-Based Therapy

This paper will be discussing how mindfulness and meditations have played a major part in evidence-based therapy. Mediation has been around for the past 100 hundred years and has been used in such religions as Hinduism and Buddhism. It is still being used today and therapist are incorporating Mindfulness as well.

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These two types of therapy work hand in hand are beneficial in treating client’s. Mindfulness helps the client focus on the here and now. Mediation gives the client ways of to relax and breath. These types of therapy help the client develop a new coping mechanism or coping skills. These types of therapy are being used extensively in recent years and have become great assets for a therapist in teaching clients to focus and relax.

Mindfulness and Meditation

Mindfulness and Meditation have been being used for several hundreds of years. Hinduism and Buddhism religion have used these practices for many centuries. The priest has been practicing mindfulness in the temples for hundreds of years. Both religions believe that all humans must be in touch with their bodies and souls. They also believe in good or bad karma. To practice mindfulness or meditation a person must totally in tune with their body. Mindfulness has enjoyed a tremendous surge in popularity in the past decade, both in the popular press and in the psychotherapy literature. The practice has moved from a largely obscure Buddhist concept founded hundreds of years ago to be introduced in the psychotherapy concept today. Advocates of mindfulness would have us believe that virtually every client and therapist would benefit from being more mindful.

Among the benefits are self-control, objectivity, affect tolerance, improved flexibility, improved concentration and mental clarity, intellect, and the ability to relate to others and self with kindness, acceptance, and compassion. Major Developers of Mindfulness and Meditation Jon Kabat Zinn and his work on mindfulness meditation Jack Kornfield, Sharon Salzburg, and Joseph Goldstein also played a crucial role in bringing mindfulness to the West when they founded the Insight Meditation Society (IMS) in 1975. They helped introduced mindfulness meditation to the West, and the combination of mindfulness meditation and MBSR helped popularize mindfulness in the West within both clinical and non-clinical populations.

Of course, the IMS is just one of many organizations that have helped popularize mindfulness meditation in the West and in the United States. Theoretical Basis for implementation The theoretical methods when treating PTSD may focus avoidance, hyperarousal, numbing of emotions, and negative emotions. The existence of good empirically supported treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), therapist and psychiatrists continue to ask for more options for managing this chronic condition. Meditation-based approaches are used widely applied, but there is minimal research strongly assessing the effectiveness of this approach. This article reviews meditation as an intervention for PTSD, considering three major types of meditative practices: mindfulness, mantra, and compassion meditation.

The effectiveness of using this form of therapy may effectively reduce PTSD symptoms and improve quality of life are presented. Experiential evidence of the efficacy of meditation for PTSD is limited but holds some promise. Additional evaluation of meditation-based treatment and the effects are still being observed today. The brain has different ways of detecting stress and fear. Amygdala- aroused when detecting and reacting to emotions such as fear. Hippocampus- critical to learning and memory and helps regulate the amygdala. A Prefrontal cortex- part of the brain associated maturity regulating emotions and behaviors and making wise decisions.

Specific practice methods What is mediation? Meditation is a mind and body practice that has a long history of use for increasing calmness and physical relaxation, improving psychological balance, coping with illness, and enhancing overall health and well-being. Mind and body practices focus on the interactions among the brain, mind, body, and behavior. Some research suggests that meditation may physically change the brain and body and could potentially help to improve many health problems and promote healing. The term “mindfulness” is defined to a psychological state of awareness, that promote awareness, a way of processing information, and a character attribute. To define mindfulness as a moment-to-moment consciousness to a person’s experience without judgment.

Therefore mindfulness is a state and not a trait. While it might be supported by many therapists or activities, such as meditation, it is not equivalent to each other. Several disciplines and practices can develop mindfulness, such as yoga, tai chi, and qigong, but most of the data has shown that mindfulness developed through mindfulness meditation. When self-regulation is being used the focus is on getting the clients’ attention and awareness, so the mental processes have a greater control and develop better focus on the training a person’s attention and awareness and to develop the mental processes and to control the common mental well-being and development and/or specific abilities such as calmness, clarity, and concentration (Walsh & Shapiro, 2006).

Appropriate age of client when using mindfulness and mediation The increasing number of students in K-12 school are placing demand on the student’s attention and increasing their functions, students are barely taught how to pay attention. The affective disorders may contribute to how a class function (Broderick & Metz, 2009) causing teachers to stress (Roeser, Skinner, Beers, & Jennings, 2012). The academic outcomes of the relationships involving effective self-regulation and cognitive are supported by research in educational psychology and neuroscience (Buckner, Mezzacappa, & Beardsley, 2009: Greenberg, et al.2003: Tang, Yang, Leve, Harold,2012) That is, students learn through psychoeducation, behavioral skills, and a positive school environment to self-manage their emotions to reduce risky behaviors and improve academic performance. Mindfulness-based approaches teach students “from the inside out to cultivate self-management of attention and increase self-awareness by focusing on intrapsychic experiences such as thoughts, emotional states, the breath, and other bodily sensations (Semple, Lee, Rosa, & Miller, 2010).

A goal of this school-based mindfulness programs is to increase awareness of the influence of thoughts and emotions on speech and behaviors, and that enhance improvement in making more skillful or appropriate choices (Semple, & Lee, 2011). A Garrison Institute report (2004) has shown that many schools that have used mindfulness therapy because the techniques are easy to learn and may help students become more responsive, calm, and focused while experiencing less stress and distractions. This report shows that classrooms using mindfulness might create more positive learning classrooms in which students pay attention, are better prepared to learn. When using mindfulness programs for adults has appeared to produce neurological, physiological, cognitive, effective, and behavioral benefits (Hofmann, Sawyer, Witt, & Oh, 2010: Ivanovski & Malhi, 2007).

Mindfulness has produced short- and long-term positive outcomes for children and adolescents as well. However; the evidence base for this is limited and inconclusive. Although mindfulness training for children and adolescents seems to be a promising approach, significantly more research is needed to examine how effective mindfulness is with various populations. Contradictions for clinical use The therapist opinion is that the more trauma a person has gone through, the greater the need to watch carefully to when and if mindfulness should be used. There is a minute amount of data, known about why some people are more successful than others in psychological problems by using t on by mindfulness practice.

Pre-existing mental health issues such as anxiety or depression, or a history of trauma or psychosis, may increase the risks. Harm is more likely to happen from excessive forms of exercise. Harm is more likely to happen when using inappropriate forms of mindfulness practice. In teaching mindfulness safely, we offer three main points: the intensity of the practice, the vulnerability of the person and the quality of the mindfulness instructor/instruction. Understanding these factors will help to ensure that protection against risk is in place for that practicing mindfulness and that teachers of mindfulness-based programmed receive appropriate training and supervision. Location of Primary Research and Training CFPRT Summer 2018 Positions CFPRT Summer 2018 Positions Description The UCLA Library created the Center for Primary Research and Training integrating special collections materials more fully into the teaching and research mission of the university. The center pairs students with archival projects in their areas of interest, introducing them to archival practice through hands-on training, and their work results in making special collections materials more accessible to the research community. It was launched with a generous lead gift from the Ahmanson Foundation.

  • Head of the Center for Primary Research and Training (JPFO3518) https://recruit.apo.ucla.edu/apply/JPF03518Department: Library Special Collections Rank and Salary: Assistant Associate Librarian ($56,170 – $75,337) Position Availability: Immediately AApplication… List of NIH Institutes, Centers, and Offices, National Institutes of Health Semple, R. J., Droutman, V., Ph.D., Reid, B. A., (2017)
  • Mindfulness Goes to School: Things (So Far) From Research and Real-World Experiences
  • Sears, R. W., Chard, K. M., (2016) Mind-based Cognitive Therapy for Post Traumatic Disorder References Psychology School (January 2017)
  • Lang, A. J., Strauss. L., BBovee J., (2016) The Theoretical and Empirical Basis for Mediation as Intervention for PTSD
  • Davis, D. M. Ph.D., Hayes, J. A. Ph.D., (July, August 2012) What are the benefits of mindfulness. Boone, M. S., (2014) Mindfulness and Acceptance in Social Work: Evidenced-Based Interventions and Emerging Applications https://www.nih.gov/institutes-nih/list-nih-institutes-centers-officesNIH is made up of 27 Institutes and Centers, each with a specific research… Through basic and clinical biomedical research and training, NCI conducts and …. on three primary activities: conducting computational biosciences research, … https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/oep/ercportfolio.htmlApr 4, 2018
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