Mediation Model Analysis
“Rates of murder, sexually transmitted diseases, unintentional injury or driving under alcohol are the kinds of harmful indicators of health that indicate a peek in teens (Mulye, Park, & et al. 2009). Experimental materials also typically happen during puberty, a period of evolution in that patience is less and increases the dependency risk (Glaser, Shelton, Bree, 2010). Family and peer play an important part in improving health in a period of adolescence, also recognizing that young people enjoy their quality of life and personal happiness. Fitness and Health do not only depend on health care distribution in the time of sickness; on the conflicting, the effect of different settings may be vital (Gaspar., 2008).
Behavioral issues that happen in childhood and teenage years may persist all over puberty, linked with social maladjustment, drug abuse and different problems (Bongers, Koot, & et al. 2008). The group of peers may, on the one hand, act as an ideal and affect attitudes and behavior whereas, on another hand, may offer suitable societal preparation for consumption, encouragement and easy access (Glaser, Shelton, Bree, 2010). Theory of social learning states that observing and adopting a particular behavior is not compulsory for adolescents; it is enough to recognize that the group of peers agree to take them so that they can choose similar behaviors.
Peer-to-peer relationships may define liking in the way clothing is worn, the use of illegal materials, sensual behavior, the adoption and acceptance of violence, the adoption of illegitimate and non-social behaviors, and numerous other parts of adolescent life (Padilla, Walker & Bean, 2009). For example, the core reasons of alcohol intake by adolescents are linked with social occasions, which typically occur in friends’ company: Consumption makes holidays more entertaining, facilitates dealing with others, helps relax or facilitates sharing feelings and experiences. As well, imitating risk behaviors may be simulated when drinking starts in the context of a societal gathering (Larsen, Engels, & et al., 2010).
Statement of the Problem
On one side, the presence of friends permits a person to share emotions and different experiences and to learn about how to resolve problems. On the other side, lack of friends causes social isolation and limits social connections, with fewer chances for making new relations and communicating social skills. The relationship is moreover linked with mental health, while the incompatible connection with peers is negatively linked with well-being. Adolescent friendships can provide a healthy atmosphere for growth in a positive way and attain better educational outcomes. Adolescents who have mutual friendships report high levels of feelings of belonging to the school; same time, mutuality and feelings of belonging have a better impact on educational outcomes (Vaquera & Kao, 2008).
The school is an environment in which personal relationships are fostered, that are significant for the personal and social growth of young people; it is accountable for the transfer of interactive norms and standards and plays a key role in the socialization process of adolescents. The school is capable of bringing together different communities of peers and encouraging self-respect among adolescents, building it an advantaged place for meetings and communications. Teens spend too much time at school, making it a great context for sharing or protecting risky behaviors (Piko & Kovács, 2010)?
Despite the positive effect of the group of peers in puberty, the greater the teenager’s independence from the peer group, the greater the ability to deal with their impact. This flexibility appears to rise with age, which is also mean that they are associated with puberty; boys in many studies appear to be less resilient than girls. Other factors that may be present in the peer group effect are the kind of friendship that youngsters keep with the group of peers: if the friendship is strong, they will have a more impact on the behaviors of others (Glaser, Shelton, Bree, 2010). When an attachment is supposed as mutual and of great value, it exercises more effects. The firm rejection is one more factor that has been recognized as a potential limiting factor. Adolescents who are capable of preserving a firm rejection are less likely to influence the group (Glaser, Shelton, Bree, 2010). They are just some of the variables that have been identified as potential factors to reduce the impact of peers.
Sen (2010) noted that family meals could create a closer relationship among teenagers and parents by firming the positive association and ignoring risky behaviors, like physical violence, alcohol abuse and burglary among boys and substance abuse among girls. These gender differences may be due to the great significance attributed by girls to family goings-on; however, they don’t disclose that the boys are indifferent to them, but the gender relationship may vary. Parental control and communication protect teenagers of both sexes from engaging in risky behaviors founded by Huebner and Howell (2003).
Authors assessed all the risky behaviors that are found to be influenced by the peer group. Young people who had the opinion of engaging their peers in certain activities were more involved in similar behaviors; the similar was found for those adolescents who had a challenging association with their blood relations. Writings appear to propose that the group of peer plays a significant role in adolescence; however, it may negatively affect the risky behaviors of adolescents by increasing their contribution activities. Parents play a defensive role in identical behaviors, on the other hand, and this is generally linked with parental control and better communication. Given the results, the objective of such a study will be to examine how peer influence is related to i. health, ii. Well-Being, iii. Risk behavior, iv. Violence and v. feelings about school; and whether that impact may be moderated by teenagers’ associations with parents.
Sample and Participants:
A group of teenagers that took part in the Portuguese survey of the European study of health behavior in school-age kids (HBSC) was the sample used. The group of researchers from England, Norway and Finland started HBSC study and has been conducted every four years. Over the years, the study has become increasingly important, and there are presently 44 participant countries from North America and Europe, in association with the WHO. Portugal took part in the survey when a preliminary pilot study was conducted adapted to the Portuguese population, in agreement with the International Protocol. The study objects at understanding more teenage behavior regarding health and understanding well-being and health in the societal background, by collecting information that permits domestic and global contrasts.
Pupils of classes 6, 8 and ten studying in public educational systems, were involved in Portuguese survey with an average age of 14 years (standard deviation = 1.89). Four thousand eight hundred seventy-seven pupils were the total sample from 257 classrooms in 125 randomly selected Portuguese schools. In the current study, because of the use of statistical analysis, 1,238 pupils were left, representing a whole final sample of 3639 teenagers. It represents the school mentioned above years stratified by the areas of administrative education. Pupils were dispersed in the given way: girls were 50.4%; 32.6% in tenth grade, 35. 7% in eighth grade and 31.7% were in the sixth grade.
The class was used as an analysis unit. The classes were chosen randomly in every school, to find out the required amount in every class, that corresponds to the amount given by the Education Ministry. Educators surveyed the schoolroom. Pupil involvement was controlled. Classes and schools were randomly selected from a list given by the Education Ministry. The surveys were referred to educators with the process, explicitly requesting that the participation of students is unknown and voluntary. Pupils who do not want to attempt the questionnaire completely can leave the class.
Variables and Measures
The HBSC study was conducted to collect information, according to the relevant protocol. This survey provides, among other things, demographic data and welfare indicators (quality of life regarding satisfaction, happiness, and health of life) and indicators of peer relations. In this survey, variables related to teenage relationships were used with groups of peers, their associations with the atmosphere of the school, parents, and behaviors of danger, health, and violence.
To analyze the suggested explanation model, SEM was placed to evaluate the mediation quality of a set of variables. Version 6.1 of software of Structural Modelling and the statistical program EQS, was used. By using confirmatory factorial analysis, it was essential to test the model in parts before testing the entire model. Three models of mediation were tested: for relationship between the quality of mediation between independent variables, the independent mediation model was tested, determined by peer impact, through risky behaviors friends, consisting of five types of indicators on different kinds friends and friends with preventive behaviors; For friends and communicate with friends consists of 3 indicators and friendship quality, consisting of 10 indicators regarding the strength of relationship. The mediating model of mediation consisted of variables connected to the relationship among adolescents and parents by communication with the mother and father, and parental control, which included five indicators related to what fathers and mothers be familiar with about their youngsters. Lastly, the dependent model of mediation examined the mediation quality among dependent variables, i.e., less participation in risky behaviors, consisting of three indicators related to smoking, alcohol and drug abuse; lack of participation in violent behaviors, consisting of three indicators related to provocation, fighting and keeping a weapon; health consists of eleven indicators linking to psychological and physical signs. Well-being consisting of 12 indicators related to satisfaction and happiness with life and quality of life of adolescents; and attitudes toward school, consisting of one indicator.
Subsequently analyzing the models of mediation, few indicators were eliminated with saturations lesser than 40. Altogether, eight indicators were eradicated. Differences among fault measures were also presented, in a total of 8 variations, 2 in the model of self-determining mediation and 6 in the mediating model of mediation.
From the sample, 1,238 contestants were deleted in understanding the model. The results obtained concerning the capability of the proposed description model exhibited that it provided the efficiency of lower levels (see Step 1 of Table 1). Though, the study of the results gained from LaGrange Multiplier test, which evaluates the necessity to add advanced limits to the model, revealed that the intro of a few links among factors would considerably decline the chi-square value, among other things, parent control aspect, communicating with parents and working on less participation in violent behaviors. From the factors on health to the quality of friendship, communication with friends, less participation in risky and well-being behaviors, and the aspects of feeling about school and less participation in dangerous behavior. A decision was taken to modify the model and add them as shown in step 2 of table 1. After entering these criteria, the consequences display improved levels of model adequacy. Lastly, the outcomes achieved in the Wald test were analyzed, showing the non-important parameters of the model. This has shown that there are some important relationships that have been eradicated, that is, among communication with paternities and fellows with preventive behaviors; among parental control and friends who have risky behavior and communicate with fellows; among less contribution in risky behaviors and communication with mother and father; In risky behaviors and parental control; and among health and parental control. Consequences gained after removal of these factors are given in Stage 3 of Table 1. Demonstrates that the actions taken have upgraded the structural model’s adjustment index. The control indicator is satisfactory, and the model shows good enough.