India and Muslims

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India has a historical significance and, according to some estimates, Indian civilization dates back to over five thousand years. Therefore, it is natural that its society is also very old and complex. Throughout its long-spanning history, India has witnessed and absorbed several waves of immigrants including Aryans, Muslims etc. These immigrants brought their own ethnicities and cultures, contributing to the country’s diversity, richness, and vitality. As such, Indian society is a complex mix of diverse cultures, people, beliefs, and languages that may have originated anywhere but now form an integral part of this vast country.

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This complexity and richness give Indian society a unique appearance of a vibrant and colorful cultural tapestry.

However, this very complexity also brings with it a multitude of social issues. Indeed, every society in the world grapples with social problems that are unique to them, and Indian society is no exception. Deeply rooted in religious beliefs, it comprises people of different faiths including Hindus, Muslims, Jains, Sikhs, Parsis, etc. Each contributing to the socio-cultural diversity of the country.

Many of India’s social issues are also rooted in the religious practices and beliefs of its people. Nearly all types of social issues can trace their origin to the religious and cultural practices of the people. These social issues, developed over a long period, continue to persist in one form or another. Moreover, India has endured several large-scale wars; it has faced numerous foreign invaders throughout its history. A few of these invaders made the country their own and tried to impose their socio-religious practices, further deteriorating social conditions. The long period of British rule left the country in shambles, plunging it into a state of backwardness. Consequently, a myriad of reasons can be attributed to India’s social issues, but the fact remains that these issues exist, and only we can work towards resolving them.

Types of social problems in india

Poverty is a condition in which a household isn’t able to satisfy its basic needs for survival; i.e., food, clothing, and shelter. Poverty is a broad condition in India. Since independence, poverty has been a constant issue. We are in the twenty-first century and poverty still presents a pervasive threat. India happens to be a country where disparities between the haves and the have-nots are extremely wide. It should be noted that although the economy has shown some visible signs of improvement over the last two decades, this development has been uneven across various sectors and regions.

The growth rates are higher in Gujarat and Delhi compared to Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. Nearly half of the population doesn’t have proper shelter, access to a decent sanitation system, local water supply in villages, secondary schools in villages, and a lack of proper roads. Some sections of society, like the Dalits, are not even included in the poverty list maintained by the concerned authorities assigned by the government. They are groups that are marginalized in society. One aspect that further complicates and deteriorates the situation is the government’s subsidy system, which has leakages in the distribution system. They never reach the households.


Illiteracy is a circumstance which can become a blot on the improvement of a nation. India possesses the largest illiterate population. Illiteracy in India is a problem with complicated dimensions attached to it. Illiteracy in India is more or less involved with specific types of disparities that exist within this. There are gender imbalances, income imbalances, state imbalances, caste imbalances, and technological limitations which shape the literacy rates that exist in the country.

The Indian government has released numerous schemes to combat the threat of illiteracy, but due to poor sanitation conditions and expensive private education, along with faulty mid-day meal schemes, illiteracy still prevails. Not only the government, every literate person needs to accept the eradication of illiteracy as a personal goal. Every contribution by a literate person can help to eliminate this risk.

Infant marriage

In line with the United Nations report, India has the second highest number of child marriages. Marriage is considered to be a sacred union between mature and consenting individuals who are ready to accept each other and share responsibilities for a lifetime. In this context, child marriages seem to be an unsound institution. Child marriage mars the innocence of childhood.

The Indian Constitution provides prohibitions against child marriage through various laws and enactments. The first law that was designed was the Child Marriage Restraint Act of 1929, which extended to the whole of India except for Jammu and Kashmir. This act defines the age of a single male and female. Additionally, sex with minors is a criminal offence under section 376 of the Indian Penal Code. Proper media sensitization is required for a major change to take place. While on one hand, it is said that child marriage will still take nearly fifty years to be eradicated, authentic efforts and strict enforcement of legal provisions can change the scenario to a great extent.


Starvation is a situation characterized by a deficiency in calorie power consumption and is a critical form of malnutrition which ultimately results in death if not taken care of. Historically, starvation has been constant across various human cultures, except for India. Starvation can occur in a country due to many reasons, such as war, famine, and the disparities between the rich and the poor, etc. Malnutrition conditions like kwashiorkor and marasmus can also become severe causes of starvation. Typically, the conditions of kwashiorkor and marasmus arise when people are consuming diets that are not rich in nutrients, such as proteins, vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, fats, and fiber. Within the context of India, it becomes necessary to highlight that the food distribution system is flawed.

The Supreme Court has issued orders over the last few decades directing the government to implement measures, like mid-day meal schemes and the provision of healthcare schemes for pregnant and lactating women. The National Food Security Bill, which has become a landmark act, appears to show promises with respect to its measures of identifying the poor and the needy. It includes redressal mechanisms for grievances and children’s entitlements. However, this bill also has its cons. Clear mechanisms with respect to the identification of beneficiaries have not been defined. The identifiers of the poor need to be made explicit; they are vague in description.

Child Labour

Child labour typically refers to the employment of children in any type of work, whether or not it is paid. It is not a problem limited to India; it is a global phenomenon. As far as India is concerned, the issue is a significant one. Traditionally, children in India have assisted their parents with farming and other basic labour. Overpopulation, illiteracy, poverty, and the debt trap are common causes of child labour. Overburdened and debt-ridden parents often overlook the importance of a regular childhood due to the pressures of their own struggles. This leads to the poor emotional and mental development of a child’s mind, which is unprepared to handle rigorous domestic and labour duties.

Multinational companies also exploit children by hiring them in garment industries. These children are made to work more for less pay, which is wholly unethical. Child labour as a global issue has been raised on international platforms as well. Abolishing child trafficking, eliminating poverty, providing free and compulsory education, and providing basic living necessities can reduce this problem significantly. International organisations like the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund can help eradicate poverty by providing loans to developing countries. Strict implementation of labour laws is also essential to prevent the exploitation of children by various parties or multinational companies.


Homosexuality is still considered a ‘taboo’ in India. India today is one of the quickest growing international locations with extraordinary monetary boom quotes. however, is the boom charge enough to imply that India is a growing kingdom. A kingdom is likewise characterized by way of the way it treats its humans. With recognize to this prerogative, the manner India appears at homosexuality is definitely no longer the manner to look at it. Homosexuality is taken into consideration as an ailment through most sections of the society and there are only some sections of the society who welcome homosexuality. Homosexuality for that reason is likewise regarded as a criminal offence in India.

Homosexuality is a ‘crook offence’ below segment 377 of the Indian Penal Code courting returned to 1861 with punishments up to ten years which makes it all of the harder to consider that India is an innovative state and that we are the twenty first century inhabitants of the united states. although, this difficulty did see the mild of the day whilst the Delhi excessive courtroom legalized homosexual sex among consenting adults retaining that making it a criminal offence violates essential human rights manner back within the year 2009 due to persuasive struggles achieved by way of homosexual Rights activists and foundations.

In December 2013, the ideal court surpassed an arguable order making homosexual intercourse illegal quashing the Delhi high courtroom’s choice on the problem. In January 2014, the supreme court additionally refused to check the petition in opposition to its order on gay sex being criminalized. unnecessary to commentary, the refusal drew flak the world over for violating fundamental rights. To sum up, homosexuality wishes tolerance both by the use of a and its citizens. it’s far truly no longer a disorder subsequently it doesn’t require any treatment. in line with my viewpoint, the companies which have been instrumental with the emancipation of the LGBT community (example- Naz foundation) must preserve with their protests due to the fact slowly however in reality humans are changing their perceptions towards this problem.

Present Situation

We strive to position our country as a cutting-edge, forward-looking powerhouse in the global arena. It is true that India is making significant strides internationally as a nation with encouraging developments in the fields of science, economics, and technology. However, in terms of social progress, we still rank as one of the lowest globally. India’s Human Development Index (HDI) for 2013 was ranked 135 out of 187 countries listed in the report. This demonstrates the regrettable situation regarding India’s status on social indicators.

This also reflects that our society still embraces orthodox beliefs in a negative sense and struggles to adopt concepts of equality and brotherhood. Although various governmental and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) are working to improve the current status quo within the social sphere, the results are not very promising. Perhaps the issue lies within deeply ingrained convictions in the minds the country’s population, which stunts the pace of change. For instance, the issue of female feticide is a shameful practice still prevalent in our society despite numerous prohibition measures enforced by the government and NGOs.

The root cause of this issue originates from the patriarchal system prevalent in our society, which considers males as the superior authority and women as subordinate. As a result, the strong preference for male children over female children has led to the disgraceful practice of female feticide. Consequently, this belief system and cultural conditioning are major barriers to rapid societal change. However, it is reassuring to note several positive changes in society such as an increasing number of girls attending school and a growing female employment rate. Moreover, the overall illiteracy rate is declining, and the conditions of the SC/ST communities are improving. Despite these steps forward, the situation is far from ideal.

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India and Muslims. (2021, Oct 15). Retrieved from