History of the Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution caused a serious deterioration in the living conditions of workers. In fact, the great masses of men who had to leave the countryside to go to the industrial cities had to abandon their old habits to take others. Life in the countryside was not at all easy but was carried out according to human rhythms. Children helped their parents in the fields. In the evening the family gathered in the warm of the stable. Festivals and fairs were an opportunity for the entire community to consolidate relationships. Of course, this was not happening in the city. The family was profoundly transformed because the wages were so low that both parents had to work and gave birth to many children so that they could also earn. Children were hired at the factory. For some operations, the small size of the children and the agility of their fingers were the best aid for the machines. Their weakness was a guarantee of docility. Without difficulty they could be reduced to a state of passive obedience to which mature men could not easily be bent.
In the first mills the fate of these children was particularly painful. At the mercy of their masters they were subjected to inhuman slavery. The foremen did not allow a break. Often, in order not to stop the machines, work continued day and night. The injuries were very frequent and the discipline was wild.
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The concentration of several factories in the same place determined the transformation of villages into the city. The housing problem was one of the most dramatic consequences of the Industrial Revolution. Luck of sanitary locations, poor sewage, cramped logging facilities, rising pollution from burning coal, tainted water, caused unwanted incestuous relationships, spread of diseases and sickness.
To address some of the problems, water supplies were improved, sewage systems expanded, new parks and recreation facilities were built to improve leaving conditions. With that new building codes were introduced to outlaw the construction of unsafe buildings that housed the workers. With that in 1840s, the British Parliament passed new laws regulations to address child labor and finally pull the plug from having children working. To address the working conditions of the adults, trade unions even though were considered illegal, played a big role ultimately becoming part of the industrial society.