Greenhouse Effect & Types of Pollution
Transportation, industrial, phonic, water and air are all types of pollution coming from personal cars, cruise ships and smokestacks, decreasing the clean air to breathe, homes for animals, food production, and great changes to the poles. Global warming is severely affecting our planet, and it continues to grow out of control.
Global warming is the gradual increase in the overall temperature of the earth’s atmosphere. This causes the greenhouse gases to increase, increasing the levels of carbon dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons, and other pollutants. ¦ knowledge about global warming was formerly the exclusive purview of climatologists and a small subset of environmental activists ( Kellstedt, Zahran, Vedlitz, 113). The four most important greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, fluorinated gases, and methane.
The global warming the Earth is experiencing is taking away the forests, raising the sea levels, taking away habitats for endangered animals, making animals migrate at different times than they normally would, worsening the air quality, causing wildfires to surge, increasing the humidity, acidifying the oceans, decreasing the food production, and increasing the incidence of pests and vector-borne diseases.
Global average annual temperature is estimated to increase between 4.5 and 9 degrees Fahrenheit by the end of the century. This will be accompaied by average sea level rise of between 8 and 20 inches (Guile, Pandya, 19). As the captured heat in Earth’s atmosphere starts to heat the Earth, it melts the ice caps and glaciers, flooding the coastal lands by the rising sea levels. While the ice caps and glaciers are melting, it is taking away the homes to polar bears and seals, increasing their chance of being attacked and becoming even more endangered. When the sea level rises, it takes away the amount of land we have, along with unpredictable farming lands. When the sea level rises, the structures that are already built at a lower level have to be built up and remade for the new water level. Flood chances increase with all the extra water coming off the mountains. “”Many locations will see peak temperatures increase even more, and during storms, an increase of inches in the sea level can translate into floods measured in feet, not inches”” ( Guile, Pandya, 19). The water becomes warmer as the Earth’s atmosphere is getting warmer from absorbing the carbon dioxide, which triggers worse winter storms.
The air quality is getting worse from the pollutants that are being put into the air. The more fossil fuels being put into the air, the less oxygen there is to breath. As trees are getting cut down, there are less to absorb the carbon dioxide and turn it into oxygen, also resulting in less clean air.
Oceans are being acidified by global warming. When the pollutants are absorbed into the water from burning coal, oil, natural gases, and sunscreen, it bleaches the bright colorful coral into white dead coral, leaving the hundreds of fish without homes, food, shelter, and protection.
Ostberg, Schewe, Childers, and Frieler state that the greenhouse gases are supposedly expected to influence crop yields in several many different ways, including, it will change the growing season, change the amount of water that is available for the crops, how well the crops will do in the heat, and that the photosynthesis in crops will increase. Certain filamentous fungi produce mycotoxins that contaminate food. Mycotoxins contamination of crops is highly influenced by environmental conditions and is already affected by global warming, where there is a succession of mycotoxigenic fungi towards those that have higher optimal growth temperatures. Aflatoxigenic fungi are at the highest limit of temperatures although predicted increases in temperature are beyond that constraint (Paterson, Lima, 1). There are certain fungi that grow on food, at a certain temperature, with a certain humidity level, but as the global warming increases, the criteria changes. Ostberg, Schewe, Childers, and Frieler say that the global patterns of precipitation and temperature exert a substantial and direct impact on food and hunger risk, as well as the quality and the quantity of the food that supplies most of the worlds food supply. Paterson and Lima also agree saying that any food that is contaminated with mycotoxins have a negative effect on quality, when found in a warmer region. Crops will be grown in areas with higher, and potentially more stressful, land surface and atmospheric temperatures. Crops may not adapt to increased temperatures, although maize is expected to acclimatize (Paterson, Lima, 2). Paterson and Lima say that aflatoxins are common in the tropical produce and that it is the most important mycotoxins, but some mycotoxins can be very toxic. This is where the incident pests come into the crops and take over, ruining the crop production and taking away mycotoxins. With the population growth increasing and the development with the economy, the decreases from the global warming will have to be made up. These reductions would have to be made-up for the increase in fertilizer, land, farmers, and the technology the farmers would need to be able to provide for this shortage. In conjunction with these long-term changes, global warming is also expected to contribute to an increase in the frequency and duration of extreme temperatures and precipitation (droughts, floods, and heat waves), which may increase the near-term variability in crop yields and trigger shirt-term crop price fluctuations (Brown and Kshirsagar, 2015; Mendelsohn et al., 2007; Tadesse et al., 2014) (Ostberg, Schewe, Childers, Frieler, 439).
Global warming information is easily accessible to Americans anywhere. The internet, the news, the newspaper, and across television, and even including movies. Yet, people do not know enough or near what they should about these issues that continue to be fed. These are mainstream issues going on not only in the United States but across the entire Earth. People should be doing as much as they possibly can to help their Earth since it is going to diminish fast with the rate global warming is going at, but instead they’re waiting for their governments or someone higher up to start the movement of getting people to individually help themselves and their Looking at the satellite pictures, ocean temperatures and glaciers are melting visibly (Kellstedt. Zahran, Vedlitz, 113). There are advertisements all over cities, spreading awareness about global warming and animals that are becoming extinct, but they aren’t paid attention to. The more people know about global warming, the thinking seems to go, the more they will feel personally responsible for it, and also be concerned about it (Kellstedt, Zahran, Vedlitz, 114). Without even knowing it, everyone is contributing to the global warming every single time cars are driven, every time the brakes are slammed, and the gas is floored, or every time there is a bonfire or trash is burned; it contributes to the global warming the Earth is experiencing.
Global average annual temperatures have increased, and the rate of increase has accelerated, since the late nineteenth century (Guile, Pandya, 19). Global warming hasn’t been able to be controlled since it was noticed as a problem. As Guile and Pandya put it, you can’t stop global warming dead in its tracks, it will continue to increase. Droughts, floods, snowstorms, severe storms, and the poleward spread all outcome from global warming.
Transportation of all kinds, contributes to the air pollution that ruins the Earth, whether it’s air, railways, cruise or road traffic. Energy systems pollute the air with lead compounds. Transportation burns huge quantities of fossil fuel and releases large amounts of pollutants into the atmosphere and is the most important source of pollution that negatively affects the environment quality (Cristina, Loredana, Daniela, 151). The road traffic is the main source of carbon oxide emissions (about 90%) and oxides of nitrogen (about 59%) (Cristina, Loredana, Daniela, 155). The main greenhouse gases are emitted from air transportation. Carbon dioxide emissions are greatly generated from cruises. The limestone reacts with the sulfur dioxide from the burning fuel to form fine particles of calcium sulfate, which are carried off in the stack gases and will be removed with the fly ash (Najjar, 274).
Global warming doesn’t have too many solutions that will have a big impact, but there are quite a few solutions that will slowly help in the long run that everyone can partake in. Some of the ways global warming can be helped are by reducing deforestation and planting more trees and plants to help add more oxygen to the atmosphere, removing carbon dioxide from smokestacks and cleaning the gases that come out of them. Repairing natural gas pipelines and facilities would help the amount of natural gas that goes into the atmosphere, along with cutting back on the fossil fuel use such as coal and oil burning and start using natural gases and cleaner gases instead. There are more economy friendly cars that can be driven, and while people turn off all of their electronics and appliances when not in use, they are saving energy. More people could reuse, reduce, and recycle as much as they possibly can, and cut back on their garbage burning. Turn a light off when it’s no longer needed, shut the computer off when it’s not actually being used. A healthier way to help the Earth would be for people to start riding bicycles or walking to places they can instead of driving, causing fewer emissions. If people started cleaning up plastic out of the waterways and off the roadways, it would help from polluting the water even more.
Air pollutants can also be reduced and Cristina, Loredana, and Daniela all believe that it can be reduced by installing some pollutant retention mechanisms that would be used during take-off and landing, and that less polluting engines can be used. “”In order to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases from the air transport, a range of market instruments may be used, such as an additional tax on tickets, fuel tax, taxing carbon dioxide emissions and emissions trading”” (Cristina, Loredana, Daniela, 154).
If trees are not taken down unless necessary and new ones are planted every year to replace the ones being taken down, it will start to help prevent deforestation. With helping the deforestation, the air will be cleaner by adding more trees that can take all the harmful air and turn it into oxygen, cleaning the air out. Tree’s help brings rain in, and without them, the climate would be much drier and hotter. Trees help keeps the temperatures down from the shade that they provide. They also help protect the land from washing out or eroding.
Najjar says that there is a way to scrub the sulfur dioxide from the gas that exists in the smokestack. Sulfur dioxide emissions can also be reduced. ¦ to the possibility of using expensive low sulfur fuel, emissions of sulfur dioxide from power plants can be reduced by cleaning the fuel of its sulfur, prior to use”” (Najjar, 274).
Cutting back on the fossil fuel usage in the world would greatly help the global warming problem. Basically, roughly 90 per cent of all energy consumption comes from non-renewables (Lane, 742). Energy is the power that is needed in the United States and saving fossil fuels would help retain that energy that is needed. This could be completed by using solar powered energy sources. This would be a cleaner energy source than natural gas, fossil fuels, or oils.
If people walk places they can easily walk to, instead of driving their cars, it would help the emissions that are put into the atmosphere, along with fuel. One-third of the oil used in Jordan is used for transportation, where most of it is consumed by passenger cars and light trucks (Najjar, 275). The maintenance on a car can increase its fuel mileage along with driving the car like it should be driven, not slamming on the brakes, flooring the gas or setting the cruise control everywhere the car is driven. Car drivers in Jordan and other countries may do certain things before driving, which can make a significant difference on the fuel cost and environment, such as: using fuel with the minimum octane number recommended by the vehicle manufacturer; not overfilling the gas tank, parking in the garage; starting the car properly and avoid extended idling; not carrying unnecessary weight in or on the vehicle; keeping tires inflated and the wheels aligned”” (Najjar, 275). Smart cars don’t take fuel to power and their batteries last a lot longer, so they are a better car to own for the sake of the world. The alternative technologies include electric vehicles; these are very efficient and do not emit exhaust gases and harmful pollutants directly (Cristina, Loredana, Daniela, 156).
Preventing more global warming could be done by lowering the poverty level, limiting the urban sprawl and the short distances driven in vehicles that are creating so many more emissions and burning and using more fuels; transfer some of the U.S renewable energy sources and higher technologies to countries around the world that are not equipped with them. The fossil fuel amount that is available could be cut back so there is a limit.
CRISTINA, MICU, et al. Analysing the Forms of Tourist Transportation with Major Effect on Global Warming and Sustainable Development. Agricultural Management / Lucrari Stiintifice Seria I, Management Agricol, vol. 15, no. 4, Oct. 2013, pp. 151“156. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=95255033&site=eds-live
GUILE, BRUCE, and RAJ PANDYA. Adapting to Global Warming: Four National Priorities. Issues in Science & Technology, vol. 34, no. 4, Summer 2018, p. 19. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=f5h&AN=133124799&site=eds-live.
Kellstedt, Paul M., et al. Personal Efficacy, the Information Environment, and Attitudes Toward Global Warming and Climate Change in the United States. Risk Analysis: An International Journal, vol. 28, no. 1, Feb. 2008, pp. 113“126. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1111/j.1539-6924.2008.01010.x.
LANE, JAN-ERIK. Global Warming: Preventing Irreversibility. Brazilian Journal of Political Economy / Revista de Economia Politica, vol. 38, no. 4, Oct. 2018, pp. 740“748. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1590/0101-35172018-2860.
Najjar, Yousef S. H. Modern and Appropriate Technologies for the Reduction of Gaseous Pollutants and Their Effects on the Environment. Clean Technologies & Environmental Policy, vol. 10, no. 3, July 2008, pp. 269“278. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1007/s10098-007-0111-x.
Ostberg, Sebastian, et al. Changes in Crop Yields and Their Variability at Different Levels of Global Warming. Earth System Dynamics, vol. 9, no. 2, Apr. 2018, pp. 479“496. EBSCOhost, doi:10.5194/esd-9-479-2018.
Paterson, Robert Russell M., and Nelson Lima. Thermophilic Fungi to Dominate Aflatoxigenic/Mycotoxigenic Fungi on Food under Global Warming. International Journal Of Environmental Research And Public Health, vol. 14, no. 2, Feb. 2017. EBSCOhost, doi:10.3390/ijerph14020199.