Careers in Criminal Justice

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Education and Professional Law Enforcement

The American police officer execrate a promise to defend and aid the people they embody. They are presented by the administration to implement the law by detaining offenders and sensing and averting misconducts. Germann (1967) commences by stating that “there was a time when the American policeman would be inclined to define his job and role in a very narrow fashion” (p. 603). However, he continues that policing obligations are no longer simple responsibilities necessitating simple credentials. It now entails intricate proficient procedures demanding a strong capacity for specialized information and performance Germann (1967) follows with the statement that “the police service, which, at one time, utilized relatively uneducated men to perform simple tasks under close supervision, now is utilizing, more and more, well-educated men carrying out complicated tasks as individual experts relying heavily on their own individual judgment” (p. 603). He goes on to that that law enforcement is a barometer of community principles, however the standards are changing.

To continue, the author discusses professionalization. Germann (1967) finds that “the local officer is, first of all, a law enforcement generalist; he must know federal law, state law, county and municipal law, traffic law, criminal procedures and their applications in his community” (p. 604). He then discusses college programs and how they are escalating swiftly. He lastly discusses problem areas. The majority of these problems lie within authoritarian, anti-intellectual, and bureaucratic environments (Germann, 1967).

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The author concludes with discussing the future of policing. Germann (1967) insists that “improved police attitudes will bring improved public attitudes and cooperation; the professional American policeman is very cognizant of the fact that in order to gain respect, he must be respectable” (p. 608). He finds that the future of law enforcement appears optimistic.


Germann, A. (1967). Education and Professional Law Enforcement. The Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology, and Police Science, 58(4), 603-609. doi:10.2307/1141922


Forensic science is the submission of science to illegal and civic regulations. Magliulo (1972) commences by stating that “forensic science is that field of study which utilizes the basic methodologies of the natural sciences in the investigation of crimes” (p. 31). A forensic scientist attempts to detect and personalize evidence while also working hand in hand with detectives in the rebuilding of actions that directed to the misconduct under examination.

To continue, forensic scientists are frequently requested to appear in court as professional or expert witnesses. Magliulo (1972) inserts that “the forensic scientist must also be trained in such diverse fields as law, sociology, and the basic communication skills areas, for evidence must be presented to the courts in a simple and comprehensive manner” (p. 31). He then compares undergraduate training in this field to the training of an analytical chemist and discusses the similarities.

Hand in hand, there are multiple routes of tactic to a career in forensic science. A four-year program leading to a degree in forensic science is the most direct path. Another option would be to obtain a bachelor’s degree in a natural science and then a graduate education in forensic science. Magliulo (1972) states that “a third path is quite prevalent because of the paucity of institutions offering the requisite forensic science programs and the poor publicity given to the field in general” (p. 31).

To conclude, once an adequate work force develops, it will be conceivable for evert laboratory to allocate its most proficient scientists to grasp positions. Magliulo (1972) comments that “forensic science has attracted a considerable number of law enforcement personnel, who are not highly motivated, but bring valuable investigative expertise to forensic science” (p. 32). He completes with the fact that forensic science career prospects are peaking, and within recent years the amount of state and regional crime laboratories has been progressively snowballing.


Magliulo, A. (1972). A CAREER IN FORENSIC SCIENCE. The Science Teacher, 39(9), 31-32. Retrieved from

Defense Detective

A defense detective works on cases given to public defenders who cannot pay for sequestered legal representation. Bliss (1956) commences by stating that a defense detective “is a new breed of investigator making use of criminal law, criminology, and police science” (p. 264). It is the job of the defense detective to find the facts behind the apprehension of the alleged offender.

To continue, the author discusses the origin of this career. Bliss (1956) states that “the Board of Supervisors of Los Angeles County created the position of Investigator-Public Defender in the fall of 1946” (p. 264). The obligations were to explore cases beneath the course of the public defender in a particular county. The exertion of the detective was narrowed virtually entirely to the criminal authority of the agency. Bliss (1956) inserts that “the investigator’s duties were comparable to those of investigators in any private law office or in the District Attorney’s office, locating witnesses and making field investigations of cases assigned to him by trial deputies in the department” (p. 264).

To conclude, over ten thousand felony cases have been handled by the bureau of investigation. Bliss (1956) completes that “the investigator not only cleared the accused but located the person actually responsible for the crime. While the investigators work in close harmony with law enforcement agencies, there is no breach of confidence” (p. 265). They are still bound to the same rules of confidence. However, by looking for facts and directing their researches on a high principled area, they are removing blindfold from justice.


Bliss, E. (1956). Defense Detective. The Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology, and Police Science, 47(2), 264-265. doi:10.2307/1140413 “

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Careers in Criminal Justice. (2019, Dec 09). Retrieved from