Benefits of Immigration Essay
Combined picture of five years Syrian boy Omran injured during the airstrike in Aleppo and unbreathing body, faced down of three years old Alan Kurdi founded drowned in Mediterranean sea become a symbol of emigrant crisis1. This artwork of Syrian artist Rehman Siddiq very spectacularly and emotionally illustrated dilemma of every immigrant – stay or run. Immigration crisis become a social phenomenon that keep spreading all over the world. From mass media we can hear basically about two main streams of immigrants – flow of immigrants from Middle East to Western Europe and march of immigrants heading from the Latino America to United States. However, immigration is on much bigger scale and complexity.
The question if the immigration is a positive or negative phenomenon is still open and the goal of this paper to clarify the main aspects of immigration and underline pros and cons such social phenomenon. That can help to answer the question why tragedies happen, why children instead of safety traveling to destination drown in Mediterranean Sea, why immigration is so complicated and long process for some people, why some people don’t have any other choice as stay and hope to survive in terrible conditions. Why we so often can hear concerns from mass media about immigration, particularly Central Americans to the United States and immigrants from Middle East to Europe.
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According to report of the United Nations have been observed rapid grow of international migrants. Total number of immigrants worldwide jumped from 220 million in 2010 to 258 million people in 20172. Interesting that India was the largest country of origin of immigrants, contributed 17 million, followed by Mexico with 13 million immigrants. After them lined Russian Federation, China, Bangladesh, Syrian Arab Republic, Pakistan and Ukraine vary within 10 million immigrants by each country. The largest recipient of migrants is the United States of America where have settled down 50 million of all immigrants. Saudi Arabia, Germany and Russian Federation share second, third and fourth place by number of immigrants. From this short numbers review obviously that immigration is a worldwide.
First of all, would be helpful to take a look on reasons and theories of migration. Movement of such a large mass of people very complex and can be classified in many ways. Wimalaratanain (2017) in his research paper has summarized all major attempts to classified, theories and reasons for migration. First of all scientists has designated two main determinants, as forced and voluntary migration (Zetter, 2015). These two factors illustrate if the person was forced by circumstances to move somewhere or motivated by intrinsic factors. Two main category splited in more: labor migration, returning migration, chain migration and asylum migration.
Some scholarly also identified following type of migration: retirement, economic, environmental, political. All this terms make emphasis on diversity of reasons for migration. Based on it we can see that immigration is very complex process involved all range of sciences to analyze it. It is not linear function where people move from one place to another it is a few dimensions equation with many unknown yet factors.
Variety of migration theories were classified into three main categories: micro-level, macro-level, and meso-level (Faist, T., Faist, T. 2000). Micro – level theory consider migration as the process initiated by personal desires and expectations. Where macro-level theory in opposite consider migration as movement of mass that include economic and political factors. As should be expected, meso-level is a merging theory of individualistic motives and social circumstances that can involve family bonds, social network, religion groups and etc. Every of this category stand for many more theories, that would be not enough even this paper to describe in details all of them. For this reason, we going to consider only main idea. Almost all of them agree on moving people form the place of dissatisfaction to place with better opportunity to satisfy their desire, ambitions and plans, cause migration. As well as air move from the area with high pressure to the area with low pressure, people always move to the place with better opportunity with hope on prosperity in the future.
From what was said above, immigration looks like a natural phenomenon of human social life on any stage of development. Also, as we can see from statistics above it’s common worldwide. Immigration always was a part of human life, one difference that we can be witness it’s a scale of immigration. For sure, simplification of traveling from one point to another, developing transportation, communication, infrastructure, make immigration technically easy as it wasn’t ever before. Another reason for mass immigration is political upheaval that that took place in row of country. Revolutions often accompany by bloody events, economical crisis and material loss. People from these regions form a majority of immigrants who has a problem with crossing a border. If they have possibility to apply for legal asylum status, time for consideration one case can take from one to few years.
Even more, society, public institutions and services not ready to process such number of immigrants. Politics and native people divided into three groups: those who support immigrants, those who against them and those who ignore the problem. Mass protests pro and against immigration rolled over Europe and America. For Central Americans problem gain acute form when Donald Trump signed the executive order 13767 about Border Security and Immigration Enforcement Improvements that mean to build a physical wall between central America and the United States3. Also, as a part of security enforcement President signed a ban for seven country, predominantly Muslim, that limited admission to the US for wide group of people4.
At the same moment in Europe pressure build up on the shore of Turkey and Africa. According to International Organization for Migration in attempts of crossing Mediterranean Sea at least 22400 people lost their life since 2000th and at least 1850 die during the journey only in 2014. As well US – Mexico border took life of 230 people in 20145. All this and many other precedents pointing on issue that should be solve for sustainable development of society.
Clear that people form Middle East in their majority are forced to move due to war conflict in their country. Where people from Central America mostly looking for economic benefits and escape from poverty and corruption. Majority of both groups are poor people with low level of education. They ready to risk their life and life of their children in order to change their life for better, it’s desperate step that should take attention of publicity. That slowly consider and try to solve more pragmatic equation, if it’s will be beneficial for their country. On one hand people claim about benefits that country can gain from immigrant’s flow like economical boost, filling the gaps on demanded manual labor and net growth of population. On the other hand, many people concerned about economical expenses in health, education, culture marginalizing and domestic insecurity.
Analyzing the problem and effect of immigration on economy opponents of immigration claim that immigrant’s expenses lying on the shoulders of taxpayers. Using welfare and benefits like a health care by immigrants drain money from native people to strangers. For example, American opposition of illegal immigrants cite the 113 billion dollars per year cost of education, health and welfare benefits for 9 million undocumented immigrants4. In opposite some research indicate that those illegal immigrants can boost economy and contribute 1.5 trillion dollars into American economy over decade if they will allow to legalize and granted with residency (Wall, 2015). Legalization will give immigrants opportunity to earn higher wages and invest their money in economy, buying homes, cars, appliances and electronics. As well they will create a demand on some jobs that will require higher educated native workers: lawyers, health providers, tax adviser and so on.
Which is another hot topic on economic effect of immigration is anxiety for negative effect on labor market. Some politics warning about raising unemployment rate and lower wages a specially for lowest-paid workers6. European country, like France, Spain, Italy, with unemployment rate higher 10% struggle to decide to accept more human recourses without providing enough working place for native. Another story in Germany, that has the lowest unemployment rate in EU – 4.7%7. They also understand the necessity of boosting newcomers to the higher skilled work, for this reason they offer apprenticeship programs that will catch them up to required qualification. Also, they provide control of employers to make sure that wages for migrants not lower then German workers. In this way they were able to accept the most immigrants in the EU as far, by secure integration newcomers to economy and protection to native labor market.
Some industries in America as well depend on immigrants. For instance, U.S Department of Agriculture report that about 69 percent of agricultural employees are from Mexico8. As well as construction industry satisfy 25% of labor shortage by immigrants. Beside to filling the gaps, immigrants make a positive impact on small business in retail, restaurants, groceries and dry cleaning. According to Immigration Research Initiative immigrants are owners of 18 percent of small-business, that provide job for 4.7 million people and give a total revenue of more than 776 billion annually9.
Immigrants bring fresh idea and new experience that make a huge contribution to successful business and startup companies. It’s was noticeable in IT sphere where new approach, different philosophy and hard work make possible existence of many worldwide knowing products as E-bay, Google, Yahoo, Intel and many other. One of the recent story of success that exploded the world of engineering, has been written by another immigrant – Elon Mask is one of the many examples of creativity and high value of diversity in any majors. His company work right now on the most progressive and innovative projects that some of them already opened a new age in car transportation and made one more time America the center of new technology.
An aging population is another problem that can be solved by flow of immigrants. Especially this is actual for Europe where fertility rate of 1.6 children per woman but should be 2.1 in order to replace existing population10. Some of the research predict that Europe will need 100 million immigrants by 2030 to satisfy labor demand11. Undervalue the labor power that can be welcomed today, can be a strategic mistake on future shortage of labor market and lack of human resources.
Some of the opposition of immigration express anxiety about rising of terrorism and violence due to increasing number of immigrants from Muslim countries. This fear raised after terrorist attack made by gunmen in Paris. However, further found that all three gunmen were born and raised in France12. This anxiety didn’t find confirmation in research paper of group of scientist who have analyze criminal reports and immigration records from 1985 to 2009. (Martinez, 2015). This study focus on the place with high flow of immigrants and cases of homicide in order to find any correlation. This stushowsdy show that newcomers make a positive impact on the community in long term perspective and crime rate declined while immigration rate increased.
First immigrants usually settle in poorer neighborhoods and gave a stimulus for local economy. Also, strong family ties, two-parents family that contribute to fortification local community. Even though some would depicted immigrants as barbarian and social services, hospitals and schools, overloaded, overall effect is positive. This study also made parallel between American and European immigration process in order to show up coming process to European continent and possible avoiding mistakes of American experience. The final recommendation of this study was to focus on facilitation of immigrant adaptation into local society instead of confrontation.
One of the most powerful argument of the immigrant opposition is that immigrants utilize welfare, health care and social programs that taxpayers should pay for them. Welfare and social support is really important and make relief of economic tension for vulnerable category of people. However, it is not supposed to be a lifestyle, dependents on social security should be gradually removed from the people who have overcome the crisis Immigrants, in majority, came from the countries where social security very weak to support person or not exist at all. They by the definition not used to receive money from the government. They use their labor to make on life.
Most of them just need a little bit of support to learn language, to obtain any basic profession and they will work for society with high thankfulness for such opportunity. Anyway a new proposed fiscal budget 2018 would be cut down. For instance Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) going decrease on 25%, or about 192 billion dollars over 10 years, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families shortage by 13 percent or about 21 billion dollars. The most significant changes would be to Medicaid, the budget will be slashed by 772 billion dollars.
Another radical idea to solve immigration crisis is enforcing border security. This can include building physical fence, barrier, walls and another defense construction. Some politics sure that it can help to prevent illegal immigration and regulate crossing a border. This require a huge amount of investments as well. For example US-Mexico wall can estimated cost 70 billion dollars. Another problem is that wall is not as effective as it presented.
Some study provide information that majority of illegal immigrants have been admitted to the United States legally and then they are overstay visa or ignore to came back home. Another European expert share thought that strengthen border will cause even more victims, because difficulty to cross the border will rise demand on smuggler, give ground for human trafficking and will put immigrants under more danger. Also “big fat wall” can make harmful impact on environment and interrupt migration nature inhabitants. This wall can become the most expensive symbol of human egocentrism, racism and nationalism for the future generation that will pass the shame and weakness of human being, instead of contribute to sustainability of society.
Drawing conclusion ? would like to remind that immigration is very complex phenomenon moving people from one part of the world to another. Complexity, consistency and diversity can indicate that it’s natural phenomenon that should be present as well as migration birds or animals. Disruption of this mechanism can lead to very unpredictable consequences. Immigration crisis that our generation faced are signal of upcoming global evolution, so instead of resisting to the process we have to address the problem in effective and humalitive way.
Analyzing the effect of immigration on economy of hosting country coming to conclusion that it definitely worth. Even though it can require some investments at the beginning, it will pay off in long term perspective. Creation of “brain circulation” can help to be on the edge of development new technology and prevent slowing down due to satiety.
As well as the economy, labor market can benefit from immigration creating natural leyer of manual working, fill shortage of workers in less attractive majors, compensate aging of developed society. Beside direct benefits, society can also benefit indirect way, creating work plays due to flow of newcomers.
American and European society for a long time talk and pritch to the whole world about kindness, hospitality and love, sending messages through missionaries, broadcasting, religion. Now when people from different culture and background coming to our home and asking for help we have a real chance to help and open the door and share our wellneth with people who need it. Otherwise, we can lose humanity even to each other, showing that money and materialistic value over people. It would the biggest harm to society, to keep denied value of people who just located on the other side of the border.
- Peter Morici, “The real cost of illegal immigration,” The Washington Times, Sept. 6, 2016, http://tinyurl.com/hd59gwf.
- Wimalaratana, Wijitapure. “International Migration and Migration Theories.” Social Affairs: A Journal for the Social Sciences, vol. 1, no. 5, 2016, pp. 13-32.
- Faist, T., & Faist, T. (2000). The volume and dynamics of international migration and transnational social spaces. Oxford: Oxford University Press
- Martinez, Ramiro,Jr, Janice A. Iwama, and Jacob I. Stowell. ‘Race, Immigration, and Homicide in Contemporary Europe and the United States: An Urban Comparison.’ Crime, Law and Social Change, vol. 64, no. 4-5, 2015, pp. 291-304. ProQuest, https://search-proquest-com.tacomacc.idm.oclc.org/docview/1759217635?accountid=36202, doi:http://dx.doi.org.tacomacc.idm.oclc.org/10.1007/s10611-015-9591-5.
- Zetter, R. (2015). Protection in Crisis: Forced Migration and Protection in a Global Era. Retrieved from the Migration policy Institute website: http://www.migrationpolicy.org/research/protection-crisis-forced-migration-and-protection-global-era
- Wall, S. (2010, Jan 08). Study says illegal immigrants are valuable to country, economy. The Sun Retrieved from search-proquest-com.tacomacc.idm.oclc.org/docview/369618581?accountid=36202.
- The image available on www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2016/09/01/photo-of-my-dead-son-has-changed-nothing-says-father-of-drowned/
- The full text available on: www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/migration/publications/migrat ionreport /docs/MigrationReport2017_Highlights.pdf
- The full text of executive order available on www.whitehouse.gov/presidential-actions/executive-order-border-security-immigration-enforcement-improvements/
- The full text available on: https://www.whitehouse.gov/presidential-actions/executive-order-protecting-nation-foreign-terrorist-entry-united-states-2/
- IOM, Fatal Journeys: Tracking Lives Lost During Migration, 2014, http://publications.iom.int/bookstore/free/FatalJourneys_CountingtheUncounted.pdf (accessed June 8, 2015).
- Peter Morici, “The real cost of illegal immigration,” The Washington Times, Sept. 6, 2016, http://tinyurl.com/hd59gwf.
- Farm Labor Background Report, Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2017, pp. 3, 7, http://tinyurl.com/glrf3ar; Kenneth Megan, “Labor Shortages Make the Case for Immigration,” Bipartisan Policy Center, Oct. 23, 2015
- “Immigrant Small Business Owners: A Significant and Growing Part of the Economy,” Immigration Research Initiative, Fiscal Policy Institute, June 2012
- Steve Doughty, “Polish mothers have more children once they come to Britain,” Dailymail.com, Feb. 4, 2014
- “Project Europe 2030 on the Challenge of Demography,” Population and Development Review, European Council, Sept. 28, 2010, p. 647,
- Brian Rohan et al., “Charlie Hebdo gunmen had Weapons Training in Yemen,” The Associated Press, TheWorldPost, Jan. 12, 2015, http://tinyurl.com/p634wkc