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Cuba Missile Crisis occurred when soviet confronted United States. The crisis happened in Cuba in October 1962. It was a form of the cold war between the United States and the USSR.
The war was initiated after the United States noticed that the soviet had placed the missiles in the Cuba. There was a secret agreement between the Cuba president and the Soviet state to prevent the United States from invading the Cuba again after the first attempt failed. The crisis occurred when USSR started to build missile sites in Cuba. The crisis led to the cold war becoming closest to the nuclear war.
How it works
The government of America was worried about being attacked by the USSR through the Cuba since Cuba was near the United States [footnoteRef:1] In October 1962 American started blocking the Soviet ships which were carrying missiles to Cuba.
Soviet installation of missiles in Cuba was the one which led to crisis since they could attack the Americans through Cuba. Cuba was a neighbor to America and missiles could reach any city in America easily. This occurrence led to Cuban missile crisis. This paper will discuss the Cuba missile crisis. [1: George, Alice L. 2003. Awaiting Armageddon: how Americans faced the Cuban Missile Crisis. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.]
The crisis was initiated when Castro and Soviet premier came to an agreement to place the secret and strategic nuclear missiles in Cuba if the United States caused an invasion. The two thought that the United States would cause an invasion of Cuba. Cuba feared losing its reputation by becoming a communist country if the United States invasion were to succeed. The Soviet wanted to confront American by the use of the missiles [footnoteRef:2].
The tension developed in the United States in 1962 when they realized that soviet was building missiles in the Cuba. So as to end the crisis the United States president by then John Kennedy agreed with the USSR to destroy missiles in Cuba. This was after the United States agreed that there will be no other invasion in cubs. They also decided on removal of the Jupiter nuclear arms in Turkey which was then done. [2: Kennedy, Robert F., and Arthur M. Schlesinger. 1999.
Thirteen days: a memoir of the Cuban missile crisis.] After the United States of America attempt to withdraw the Cuban president regime of Castro, the Cuba president, and the Soviet president reached an agreement to install nuclear weapons in Cuba so as to deter the attempts of united America from invading Cuba. The installation of the missiles was noticed by the United States intelligence during some of the flight surveillance in Cuba. The president of America by then Kennedy placed a public warning about the introduction of offensive weapons in Cuba. He then sends an aircraft over the land of Cuba which took several photographs of the sites where the missiles were placed or built. The photos showed the nuclear missiles which were under construction in Cuba.
The photographs were then presented to the white house where the planning of the Caribbean missile crisis was done. The president of the United States John Kennedy asked his advisors to come up with the best options and the course of action for dealing with the crisis. the advisors came up with various options” ” some argued about destroying the missiles and then the invasion of the Cuba follows, others argued on warning the soviet against the building of the missiles in Cuba, After the advice, the president decided to invade the Cuba. The president of United States first employed the navy at the coast so as to block ships to Cuba to stop more missiles from being delivered to Cuba by the Soviet states[footnoteRef:3]. He then delivered an ultimatum so that the missiles could be removed.
The president went ahead and notified all the Americans about the existence of the missiles and said that the country was ready to use the military force so as to neutralize the issue of that national insecurity. The president then declared to the Soviet state that they will not permit the weapons to be delivered to the Cuba. He also demanded the USSR to dismantle all the missiles and take them back to the soviet. This involved both direct and indirect communication between the two superpowers. The United States military was ready to start the war. The navy forces then started implementing the quarantine and this accelerated the military striking in the Cuba. [3: Stein, R. Conrad. 2009. Cuban Missile Crisis: in the shadow of nuclear war. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow.]
The Soviet president later responded to the blockade of the ships heading to Cuba. He said that the act was an aggression action. Soviet said that the ships were to be ordered to proceed to their destination which was the Cuba. Some ships were blocked by the United States navy force while others were allowed to proceed. Some ships had not carried the offensive weapons. At the same time, the reconnaissance flights of America over the Cuba showed that the Soviet missiles were near operational readiness. Even after the blockade of the ships soviet seemed not to remove the missiles [footnoteRef:4] .
Kennedy informed his advisors that attacking Cuba will be the only way to remove missiles but he gave little time for diplomatic means. [4: Swedin, Eric Gottfrid. 2010. When angels wept: a what-if history of the Cuban Missile Crisis. Washington, D.C.: Potomac Books.] The tension between the two superpowers came to an end through the use of diplomatic means. During the crisis, the two leaders communicated using direct and indirect communication.
The president of the Soviet sends a message to the Kennedy where he was ready to remove the missiles on an agreement that the there will be no invasion of Cuba again by the United States. The US promised not to invade the Cuba again. Later on the following day, the USSR send a letter to the United States. The Soviet was ready to dismantle their missiles in Cuba if America would remove their missiles in turkey. American then promised that no invasion to Cuba publicly. They also concurred on removal of the arms in the turkey but the issue was not to be publicized. This marked the end of the Cuba missile crisis. After the agreement, the two superpowers installed a direct communication link between Moscow and Washington.
The link was created purposely to diffuse the occurrence of such crisis. The giants then signed their two agreements that are related to the atomic weapons. In this cold war, there was no state which won since all of them their interest was catered for. The American intention about the removal of Cuba missiles was achieved. Also, the will of the Soviet of protecting Cuba from invasion was also achieved. To conclude, The Cuba missile crisis was one of the cold war between the United States and the USSR. The war started as a result of USSR installing missiles in Cuba.
The missiles were installed after an agreement between the Cuba and Soviet was secretly made to prevent the United States from invading Cuba again. The united states after noticing that they demanded the dismantling of those missiles. The USSR was not responding but the United States decided to use the military force so as to neutralize such matter of national insecurity. The president of America decided to use diplomatic method while initiating the military forces[footnoteRef:5] . The navy force was set to block the ships heading to Cuba so as to prevent the further building of the missiles in Cuba.
During the crisis, there were negotiations between the leaders of the United States and the Soviet states. The direct and indirect communication between the two superpowers agreed to solve the crisis diplomatically. USSR decided to dismantle the missiles in Cuba under the promise that the US will not attempt an invasion in the Cuba. The US agreed not to invade the Cuba and then USSR dismantled its arms in Cuba. The United States then privately dismantled its missiles in turkey which was not publicly disclosed. This marked the end of the crisis between the Soviet and United States of the America.
The two superpowers then came up with the treaties on the use of the nuclear weapons. In that cold war, there was no winner who was declared as all the superpowers interests were catered for. Although America seemed to be the winner since its withdrawal of turkey missiles was not publicly announced.
George, Alice L. 2003. Awaiting Armageddon: how Americans faced the Cuban Missile Crisis. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Kennedy, Robert F., and Arthur M. Schlesinger. 1999. Thirteen days: a memoir of the Cuban missile crisis.
Stein, R. Conrad. 2009. Cuban Missile Crisis: in the shadow of nuclear war. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow.
Swedin, Eric Gottfrid. 2010. When angels wept: a what-if history of the Cuban Missile Crisis. Washington, D.C.: Potomac Books.
Roberts, Priscilla Mary. 2012. Cuban Missile Crisis: the essential reference guide.
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