Studies Related to Personality Development

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Personal Development is a process that lasts a lifetime. It serves as a way for individuals to assess their skills and qualities, as well as consider their aims in life and set goals to maximize their potential. Everyone might think they are fully developed, but anything can happen during your lifetime, which could change any goals you might have set. In this paper, I will talk about personality development, focusing on how transferences and biology influence an individual’s personal growth.

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Theories and Influences

To continue, an individual’s personal development is influenced by three main traits: heredity, environment, and situations. Heredity influences an individual’s personality traits that they are born with (The Process of Personality Development, n.d.). Since these traits are in your genes, there is not much you can do to change them. Hereditary traits include your temperament which, in children, may affect how well they get along with others (The Process of Personality Development, n.d.). For adults, it determines how they react in certain circumstances. In other words, if you grow up in a family with anger issues, you are more than likely going to have anger problems yourself (The Process of Personality Development, n.d.). For example, my father’s family is a bunch of hot-headed Italians, from whom I sadly inherited my anger. Thankfully, I have it controlled until situations arise wherein I must unleash it.

Next, the environment is a trait that nurtures our loves (The Process of Personality Development, n.d.). The environment in which you live and grow up has a significant influence on your development. Under certain circumstances, the environment you grow up in could be the reason why you refrain from certain actions (The Process of Personality Development, n.d.). For example, I grew up in a hypocritical, racist family who would profess not being racist and being the child of God. Yet, they would gossip about us behind our back. Despite growing up in such an environment, I consider everyone equals and I don’t care if you’re transgender, bisexual, gay, black, Mexican, etc. Furthermore, I am Wiccan and do not adhere to any of their Christian beliefs. Conversely, my cousins are very much like their parents. This illustrates that your environment can either make you resent everything about it, leading you on your own path, or you may decide to embrace your environment and go with it.

Another situational trait is what an individual person goes through. What individuals experience will leave imprints on and help develop their personality (The Process of Personality Development. (n.d.)). For example, from personal experience, being in a 10-year emotional, mental, and physically abusive relationship will cause one to develop severe depression, anxiety and trust issues. Additionally, some people develop PTSD, which I have. This can flare up and be caused by the slightest remembrance of the past, which in my case triggers a panic attack. Divorce, any trauma in your life, the death of a loved one, or even the happiest time in your life—these are situations that can influence traits in an individual’s personal development.

Genre: Environment/Culture/Twin Studies.

Gene-environment interaction also influences personality. The simple act that our genes influence is environment (Learning, L. (n.d.)). Additionally, the environment influences the expression of our genes. Another approach to gene-environment would be epigenetics. Epigenetics looks beyond genotype and can be expressed in different ways (Learning, L. (n.d.)). So, in other words, our environment can cause a genetic trait in our personality. And a genetic trait can cause an individual to be in a certain environment.

Next, culture is a factor of everyone’s personality. According to a psychological anthropologist named Franz Boas, personality is obtained through culture and is not biologically determined. Relativism gives a just understanding of the relationship between culture and personality (Does Culture Affect our Personality? n.d.). In my opinion, it makes sense that our culture affects our personality and our biology doesn’t. Think about it: if someone is adopted, they don’t always know about their biology, but culture does not have to be known. You can develop your own culture over the years. Personality is an underlying aspect of who an individual is (Does Culture Affect our Personality? n.d.). This makes culture, not one’s biological genes, instrumental in shaping who he is as an individual, through his own choices. This would include factors like cultural religion, beliefs, etc.

To continue, twin studies have been conducted by thousands of researchers (Twin Study, n.d.). These researchers determine the amount of variation in personality explained by genes. Studies show that heritability in identical twins is approximately 46 percent, and about 23 percent in fraternal twins (Twin Study, n.d.). I know plenty of twins, and they have similarities, but none are the same. In school, I had identical twins in my class whose parents made them dress and act alike. However, in the 12 years I grew up with them, I noticed significant differences in their behaviors and personalities. By the time we graduated, their similarities lessened as if they were strangers. This just proves that no two people are exactly the same, not even twins.

Characteristic Traits/Personality Models

In other words, temperament refers to early-appearing variation in emotions (Rettew & McKee, 2005). Some individuals possess an uncontrollable temperament that demonstrates a short fuse, causing them to get angry rapidly and at virtually anything. Conversely, there are individuals with a long fuse who, while they may appear more composed, exhibit temper reactions that are significantly worse than those of a short-fuse person once they reach their limit. Herein, “fuse” is referred to in the context of patience. There are four attributes of temperament: negative affectivity, extroversion, effortful attention, and orienting sensitivity. These four characteristics bear similarities to the Big Five personality traits: neuroticism, extroversion, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness (Rettew & McKee, 2005).

Finally, there are no specific characteristics that anyone possesses over a situation and over time. Situations and time can change your personality for better or for worse. Some people try really hard not to change their personality, but it happens every single day. There are three main models of personality. First, there are the five broad models which I mentioned in the previous paragraph. Second, there’s the temperament model which includes the extent to which temperament influences a person’s personality, whether it be due to genetics or the fact that you just have a big temper. Lastly, there’s the biological model, which determines personality based on potential psychological problems stemming from your DNA.


Furthermore, no one is the same. Studies show that even twins do not fully have the same personality, including identical twins. Personality problems can be caused by biological issues. There are five major factors of personality, as well as four characteristics of temperament. Temperament is a significant part of people’s personalities. Heredity, environment, and situation can change an individual’s personality. No individual’s personality is set in stone. It can be changed by life in general over time.


2011-2019, (c) C. (n.d.). What is Personal Development? Retrieved from
[bookmark: _Hlk21998279]The Process of Personality Development. (n.d.). Retrieved from
[bookmark: _Hlk21998426]Learning, L. (n.d.). Introduction to Psychology. Retrieved from
[bookmark: _Hlk21998519]Does Culture Affect our Personality? (n.d.). Retrieved from
[bookmark: _Hlk21998595]Twin Study. (n.d.). Retrieved from
ettew, D. C., & McKee, L. (2005). Temperament and its role in developmental psychopathology. Retrieved from

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Studies Related To Personality Development. (2022, Aug 17). Retrieved from