The Scientific Method from Observations to Hypotheses, Predictions

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The textbook called “Essentials of Physical Anthropology” is defining about the scientific method as “an empirical research method in which data are gathered from observations of phenomena, hypotheses are formulated and tested, and conclusions are drawn that validate or modify the original hypotheses.” More specifically, the scientific method is a research method that can be verified in a systematic and objective way. In order for a study to be scientific, five processes must be fulfilled: observations, hypothesis, predictions, test, and hypothesis supporting or rejecting.

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Observations, the first step of the scientific method, must first continuously observe a particular situation or object to prove a particular hypothesis. This can be caused by the word ‘if’; for example, if I can get to school faster, if I can do my time management more efficiently, or if it is not a coincidence nightmare. Through these observations, you can create hypothetical theories, ultimately thinking of something, doubting it, and giving another opinion.

The hypothesis, the second course of the scientific method, has no pre-determined results. Hypotheses can be supported or disputed through experimentation or observation. The most commonly used word in this process is ‘if-then.’ This is because it needs to take into account uncertain results, namely variables. Falsification possibilities and testability are keywords in this process. This process can be an individual creative step, a process based on scientific facts, intuition, or experience that existed in the past.

To explain the process of predictions, the third course of the scientific method is a process of thinking ahead of time, and this process also should be calculated using accurate data and logical reasoning. For example, when you make a hypothesis and refer to it, it should be explained logically using clear data so that you can make more accurate and concise predictions in the process of predicting. In this step, the outcome of the hypothesis might be predicted and the outcome determined. To do there must be more than one prediction, and the more accurate the data, the more certain the results can be indicated. In this process, you should be gathering data and be prepared to use those data.

When all this has been done, the fourth step of the scientific method is to be testing. This experiment can be done through data collected at each step. Eventually, you can see the conclusion about whether your hypothesis is true or not, and depending on the result, the hypothesis supporting or rejecting is also determined.

When I apply this scientific method to my daily life, I can explain it as follows. I can apply it as if I do not drink Starbucks coffee in the morning; my academic concentration will decrease than other days. I have always seen myself going to Starbucks everyday morning, and I feel that this is the driving force that gives me more energy. Through these observations, I can hypothesize that if I do not go to breakfast with Starbucks, my concentration will drop, and my academic efficiency will also decrease. In the prediction process, I can predict like that: if the caffeine in the coffee stimulates my nerves and brain to increase my work efficiency, it will react with my nervous system that makes up my body when they are meeting inside of me.

When I tested this prediction, when I did not go to Starbucks, that day really had a big impact on me. I could concentrate on my work in the morning. However, I had a class in the afternoon, and since then, I have not been able to concentrate on the class as perfectly as I normally would, and even then, I have been sleepy. After all, I could not carry out all of the day-to-day plans I had set up, and I could confirm that it had a very negative impact on my day. From these results, I could see that my hypothesis was correct, and I also could see that my prediction was somewhat accurate; the results support my hypothesis and prediction. Obviously, I cannot say that the information I predicted is perfectly accurate, but caffeine clearly has an important role in my body, and I can see the changes that occur when it is not supplied to my body.

The scientific method is simple, but it is not a simple process. This can be used in a wide variety of fields as well as science. It is also a process of proving correct facts using logical and systematic methods. This is also a method that can be used by scientists as well as the general public, thereby proving and demonstrating various hypotheses, which means the scope of it can be very widespread. Furthermore, I am convinced that experiencing and learning the process of accepting, acknowledging, and re-certifying incompleteness results bring great capacity for people. Finally, the textbook says the main point of the scientific method is that “the scientist thus employs observation, documentation, and testing to generate hypotheses and, eventually, to construct a theory based on those hypotheses. Hypotheses explain observations, predict the results of future investigation, and can be refuted by new evidence” (Larsen, 2015).

Reference – APA format

  1. Larsen, C. S. (2010). Essentials of physical anthropology: Discovering our origins. New York:
    W.W. Norton & Company.
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The Scientific Method From Observations to Hypotheses, Predictions. (2023, Mar 20). Retrieved from