Recommendation to Decrease Patient Obesity
Obesity is one of the most common and controversial epidemics across the United States. According to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 36% of adults in the United States are obese (Jarvis, 2016). Many factors influence health and well-being. Some risk factors are modifiable, where as other factors are not. Discussion to follow will focus on patient teaching and dietary modifications to promote a healthy weight and lifestyle, and in turn decrease healthcare associated costs and long-term health concerns in the adult patient.
Preventable Disease Overview
Obesity is a surplus of fat on an individual that has the potential or likelihood to influence their health (Obesity, 2014). Numerous causes, including genetics, social influence, pathology, psychological, and physiological routes are linked to the increased prominence of obesity. An individual may first note concerns with obesity if their clothing is no longer fitting appropriately or a weight gain is noticed. They may then voice a concern to their provider regarding unintentional weight gain.
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How it works
A provider should confirm obesity through numerous diagnostic factors and tests to rule out underlying disease processes that lead to weight gain. The major contributing factor associated with obesity is lifestyle choices such as excess calorie intake and lack of physical activity (Obesity, 2014). The provider should complete a physical exam, noting vital signs and assessment of the hearts, lungs, and abdomen. Measurements of a patient ’s height and weight should be obtained to calculate a BMI or body mass index. Additionally, a waste circumference, health history, current diagnoses and medication regimens should be obtained. Labs may be ordered to look at participants cholesterol, liver function, fasting glucose, and thyroid. Labs would rule out physiological cause for weight gain. Finally, it is important for the care team to inquire about dietary and activity routine (Obesity, 2015).
Participant is identified as at risk for obesity related to health history and dietary intake assessment obtained. She is a 49-year-old female with a history of obesity (not current), hypertension, degenerative disk disease, endometriosis, type 2 diabetes, and depression. The world health organization links the likelihood of these diseases to increase in patients with obesity (Obesity and overweight). It is additionally important to note that participant has a family history of obesity, maternal and paternal.
Evidence Based Intervention
Once a pathological condition is ruled out, treatment and prevention of obesity and obesity risk related disorders will focus on lifestyle modifications and interventions. Dietary intake is a completely modifiable factor that significantly influences health and well-being.
Evidence suggest that diets low in saturated fat and high in fiber promote weight loss and decreased morbidities associated with obesity. These diets, in combination with a regular exercise regimen, produce an even greater effect on results (Ma, et al., 2017).
Implementation: Teaching Plan
When providing patient education, it is vital to utilize a variety of different teaching methods to accommodate your patients learning abilities and style. I will provide both verbal and written instructions, as well as provide demonstrations and allow them to return demonstrations or verbalize steps or information as appropriate. Follow up is also a key to successful education and patient teaching. Participant will be instructed in the appropriate process to obtaining an accurate weight, use of a dietary journal, healthy choices for nutritional needs, and calculation of body mass index as related to obesity and dietary intake.
First, to measure progress, the patient must have a baseline. We will establish a baseline weight and measure her height. Participant should weigh at the same time each week, in the morning, after utilizing the bathroom using the same scale. Record weights weekly to track progress. A food journal will track everything, preferably including portion sizes that the participant eats or drinks to track loss and gain associated with specific choices. Next, I will teach participant the significance of body mass index and the appropriate way to figure her calculation. A BMI equal to or greater than 25 is considered overweight. (Obesity, 2015) A body mass index above 30, approximately 20% above the ideal weight of the individual, is indicative of obesity. A BMI over 40 is morbid obesity (Jarvis, 2016). Living in a technological based world, I would recommend use of a BMI calculator available at the National Institute of Health government website. If the patient prefers to manually figure their BMI, the formula is as follows: wt in kg (pounds/ 2.2) / ht in meters2 (39.4 inches is equal to 1 meter). Education on healthy dietary portions and choices for low fat high fiber food will be provided. Dietary emphasis will include drinking a minimum of 64 ounces of water a day, replacing high fat content meats like hamburger and hotdogs with low fat meets such as fish, chicken and turkey, and eating fresh fruits and vegetables throughout the day. Participant should also decrease or eliminate sugary drinks such as soda and fried foods with alternative choices. (Ells, Demaio, Farpour, 2018).
In evaluation of participants progress toward obtaining and maintaining a healthy weight and promoting a healthy lifestyle, I would recommend weekly assessment of weight, dietary and physical activity journal, follow up labs, and vital signs. A weekly weight will capture weight loss or gain over a period of one week and allow for accumulation of data to track pattern of loss or gain. A dietary journal will serve two purposes. First, it will make the participant accountable for their intake and activity. Second, it will allow the care team to gather data and associate loss or gain with patterns of lifestyle and choices. Labs would indicate a decrease LDL and normal glucose level. Vital signs are obtained to screen for general well-being of the participant. Weight loss can decrease need for pharmacological treatment for diseases such as hypertension or depression.
A fit diet is critical to wellness, healthy lifestyle, and longevity. Altering dietary habits to promote a healthy BMI decreases health risks and associated cost of treatment for conditions that develop related to obesity. Specific recommendations for dietary modifications should come at the recommendation of a provider based on patient specific conditions and needs. ?
- Ells, L. J., Demaio, A., & Farpour-Lambert, N. (2018). Diet, genes, and obesity. BMJ : British Medical Journal (Online), 360doi:http://dx.doi.org.chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/10.1136/bmj.k7
- Jarvis, C. (2016). Physical examination & health assessment (7th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Saunders/Elsevier.
- Ma Chenhan, Avenell Alison, Bolland Mark, Hudson Jemma, Stewart Fiona, Robertson Clare et al. Effects of weight loss interventions for adults who are obese on mortality, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis BMJ 2017; 359 :j4849
- Obesity. (2014, September 05). Retrieved August 14, 2018, from http://www.who.int/topics/obesity/en/
- Obesity. (2015, June 10). Retrieved August 14, 2018, from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/obesity/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20375749
- Obesity and overweight. (n.d.). Retrieved August 15, 2018, from http://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/obesity-and-overweight
- Obesity Prevention. (n.d.). Retrieved August 16, 2018, from https://stanfordhealthcare.org/medical-conditions/healthy-living/obesity/prevention.html