In reading articles ‘Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use Among US Young Adults by Educational Attainment’, ‘Ethnic/Racial Differences in Peer and Parent Influence on Adolescent Prescription Drug Misuse’ and ‘Influences of Motivational Contexts on Prescription Drug Misuse and Related Drug Problems’, they all have a correlation on highlighting the misuse of prescription drug use by young adults. Each article gives its own interpretation of study on how and why youth are misusing prescription drugs on an ethnical level, how this problem is very understudied, the risks of misusing prescription drugs, treatments for youth affected by this growing problem and preventative measures..
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Data from 36,781 (independent variable) college enrolled youth and non-enrolled young adults with a minimum of a high school degree had a higher ratio of past-year non-medical usage of pharmaceutical opioids (dependent variable) independently, versus 11.3 %, adjusted shots extents and yet decrease use of pharmaceutical stimulant use (Martins, Kim, Chen, Levin, Keyes, Cerda’, & Storr, 2014). Are there complexities in rates of NMUPD among ethnic/racial social occasions? Does evident partner and parental substance use disappointment affect youngsters’ NMUPD? Given this is valid, what are the watched differentiates in sidekick and parental effect plans over these ethnic social affairs (Conn & Marks, 2014)? Using data from 400 young adults (independent variable) recruited via time-space sampling, we examined the role of motivational contexts in the frequency of misuse of three prescription drug types as well as drug-related problems and symptoms of dependency. Addressing positive and negative motivational contexts of prescription drug misuse may not only provide a means to reduce misuse and implement harm reduction measures but may also inform the content of treatment plans for young adults with prescription drug misuse problems (Kelly, Rendina, Vuolo, Wells, & Parson, 2014).
Each article used different methods in testing the hypothesis. Article ‘Ethnic/Racial Differences in Peer and Parent Influence on Adolescent Prescription Drug Misuse’, aimed to examine one aspect of cultural socialization, parent and peer attitudes on adolescent NMUPD. Secondary data analysis was conducted on the public use of the 2010 National Survey of Drug Use and Health using records of 12 to 17 year old African Americans, Hispanics and white participants. A reliability study was conducted to assess the reliability of responses to the 2010 questionnaire. For racial/ethnic grouping, adolescents were asked to select a monoracial category or a multiracial category, non-Hispanic more than one race. Although sample contained sufficient participants in each ethnic group to conduct analyses far exceeded that African American and Hispanics adolescent combined(Conn & Marks, 2014).
In article ‘Prescription Drug Use Among US Young Adults by Educational Attainment’, illustrated that young adults aged 18 to 22 who do not attend college are particularly high risk for non-medical prescription opioid use and disorder. They vary by education and race/ethnic and male and female differences within educational subgroups. National Survey of Drug Use and Health used a screening question that assessed whether the respondent had ever used a non-prescription stimulant or taken one for experience or feeling it caused(Martins, Kim, Chen, Levin, Keyes, Cerda’, & Storr, 2014).
The last article Influences of Motivational Contexts on Prescription Drug Misuse and Related Drug Problems’, recruited 400 young adults via time-space sampling to examine the role of motivational contents in the frequency of misuse of three prescription drug types as well as drug-related problems and symptoms of dependency. Participants were asked questions like ‘in the past three months, I have used prescription drugs when I felt overwhelmed and wanted to escape(Kelly, Rendina, Vuolo, Wells, & Parson, 2014).
The results showed significant ethnic group differences in rates of prescription drug misuse such that white adolescents reported the highest rates and African American adolescents reported the lowest rates of prescription drug misuse. African American adolescents who perceived stronger parental disapproval of drinking alcohol daily were 285% less likely to report NMUPD than those perceived lesser parental disapproval or that parents neither approved nor disapproved . Despite having the highest rate of NMUPD, white adolescent who reported the highest levels of parental substances demonstrated significantly less risk of NMUPD compared to both African Americans and Hispanic adolescents. Hispanic adolescents perceived stronger parental disapproval of drinking alcohol daily were 200% less likely to endorse NMUPD than those who did not. The study did confirm the presence of these ethnic group differences and novel findings that suggest perceived parental substance use disapproval uniquely influence adolescent NMUPD(Conn & Marks, 2014).
Compared to be enrolled in college, non-enrolled with at least and less than a high school diploma had a higher prevalence of past year non-medical use of prescription opioids [NMUPO 13.1 and 13.2%, respectively, vs. 11.3%, adjusted odds ratios (aOR’s) 1.21 (1.11-1.33) and 1.25(1.12-1.40)] lower prevalence of prescription drug use. The study did not distinguish whether these non-medical prescription opioids users first started using these drugs when legitimately prescripted or obtained illegally(Martins, Kim, Chen, Levin, Keyes, Cerda’, & Storr, 2014).
Although the results provided much needed insight into the motivational contexts of prescription drug misuse and its links to substance abuse problems among young adults some limitations should be considered. Study also showed a negative situation subscale was significantly and directly associated with both outcomes increasing CIDI severity by 1.28 and SIP-AD severity by 5.33 per unit increase. Positive reinforcement of drug use are not associated with clinically significant outcomes(Kelly, Rendina, Vuolo, Wells, & Parson, 2014).
Taking everything into account, this examination represents that youthful grown-ups who don’t go to school are at especially high hazard for non-therapeutic remedy opioid utilize and clutter. Interestingly, the non-therapeutic utilization of solution stimulants is higher among school instructed youthful grown-ups. The impacts of sex and race on these affiliations are imperative to consider. Advanced education might be a defensive factor for some race/ethnic gatherings however for nobody else. There is a requirement for youthful grown-up counteractive action and mediation projects to target non-therapeutic professionally prescribed medication use past school grounds. In spite of these constraints, our examination gives important new data about ethnic gathering contrasts in pre-adult NMUPD. The outcomes likewise feature a critical qualification in understanding the impact of guardians versus peers amid the developmental time of youth. On the off chance that guardians hold a more prominent measure of impact among youths, especially with respect to NMUPD, an essential subsequent stage would incorporate subjective request to additionally investigate the parts of parental socialization that shape substance utilize conduct. Besides, it will be essential to explain conceivable middle people, for example, specific social convictions or practices, which may impact professionally prescribed medication utilize/abuse among ethnic minority youths in defensive ways.
In whole, our outcomes offer help for the aversion and treatment activities went for teaching guardians to a more noteworthy degree about the utilization of physician endorsed medications and how their messages about different substances may impact teenagers’ medication related practices. Taking such measures may essentially add to endeavors to address this developing well being worry among our country’s childhood. By and large, our discoveries demonstrate that being persuaded to abuse professionally prescribed medications because of negative circumstances is a key driver of medication issues and side effects of reliance among youthful grown-ups. Medicine torment executioner abuse is a vital pathway to these issues. Tending to the experience of negative circumstances as an inspiration for physician recommended tranquilize abuse may give an essential way to diminish substance misuse issues among youthful grown-ups who abuse doctor prescribed medications. Furthermore, clinicians should think about this a key purpose of mediation for youngsters in danger of backslide to doctor prescribed medication abuse. An attention on both positive and negative inspirations to utilize medications may likewise be a way to advance the take-up of mischief decrease methodologies among these adolescent.
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