Growth Patterns and Risk of Schizophrenia
In the introduction of this article called Growth Patterns and Risk of Schizophrenia, it mentions how the growth and nutrition of a fetus can play a part that leads to schizophrenia. It includes, that during the fetal development stage if there is malnutrition can lead a higher risk of the baby developing schizophrenia The studies involve with adult height, weight, or growth patterns.
In continuation it mentions that birth weight has an effect when it comes to disorders later in life, For an example cardiovascular diseases. In this study it’s was hypothesized that babies born with malnutrition have the risk of being diagnosed with schizophrenia.
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The methodology that was being used was study population and data collection, that involved a 2 different Finnish population where was a high risk of schizophrenia. As for the second data collection in this sample it was called the Helsinki High Risk, which recorded any new born babies between the year 1960-1964 with mother that had psychotic disorder.
On the other population since the it would have public nurses and physicians during school the nurses would need to complete a form with the child’s information of measurements: weight,BMI and height. To add on the other reason this study was collected was for genetic study.in this study it was taken from the years 1950 – 1969 from these families at least 1 individual with schizophrenia from 622 people in 147 families 57 individuals were diagnosed with schizophrenia.
Back to the HHR study the babies who were born between the years of 1960- 1964 with females who have been diagnosed with schizophrenia in Helsinki before 1975. Even though they did research between the relationship of child growth and schizophrenia, but in recent studies with the HHR study they were able to investigate more on the the relationship and to continue to conduct more cases and tested more with males.
As for the Data Analysis, they used a parametric growth curve that estimated the height with 7 parameters where they measured the fertilization, Age and adult height. By using this it allowed how the brother curve would be. The conclusion of this study is believed that there is no relations between height,BMI, weight nor age and that the only possible risks of schizophrenia is from characteristics by family.
As for the second article it introduces how the topic of schizophrenia and IQ wither they associate with one another called Schizophrenia Genetic Variants are not Associated with Intelligence. Both are known to genetic factors. It goes on saying in some studies have found genetics affect phenotypes, that in previous studies combinations of variants that relates to schizophrenia shows the brain and white matter volumes between patients with the illness and people who are healthy.
It mentions that any schizophrenia- related SNPS (single nucleotide polymorphism) are probable linked to phenotypes, that go by the name endophenotypes and this is when there is an association of the illness, it’s heritable, independent or when there is a transmission of two genes that are connected on chromosome to the same daughter cell called consegration.
In a previous twin study of 263 subjects it was found that their IQ had compatible genetics influence of 92% of phenotypical correlation, but compared with a larger Population in Sweden it showed lower rate, however not only with twins but with siblings as well but showed a high of genetic influence close to 91%. The current goal was to see whether there is a correlation between IQ genetics variants is schizophrenia.
The methods that were used a case study where ther use subjects and IQ measurements, where it includes 350 patients 90% with schizophrenia the way that was being estimated was by using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence scale which showed that IQ scores were lower with the comparison of the older version.
Then the second the method was their measurements of genotyping, CNV, and PSS measurements. It does not go much in details on how this way of the method was being used. The way the PSS were calculated was using “”PlINK”” by each variants was multiplied by the logarithm by using this it was able to find individual polygenic scores.
In conclusion variants with schizophrenia do not share correlation with IQ with any patients that are healthy or with schizophrenia. This means that any cognitive deficits and schizophrenia can not be found or shared with the same daughter cell. To conclude that their study suggest that testing population – based studies was not effective.
Lastly, the third article is about how suicide in Schizophrenia should be taken serious problem. It speaks of how there is a difference between ideation of suicide and attempters in Schizophrenia and the rates of ideators go up by 40%.
This study will go through the connection between psychopathology and suicidal behavior with three groups of patients who suffer with schizophrenia the groups consist 180 suicide ideators, 159 suicide attempters and 170 patients with no suicide ideation or behavior. It will reveal which group was more depressed and what clinicians should focus more and what symptoms are relevant to people who have suicidal behavior and schizophrenia.
This study can be divided in two groups of risk factors, which are the general factors like, white, male, singles, no job ETC. The second group is being characterized specific symptoms that are involved into schizophrenia. An example of this issue. It took place in 2004 by Jarbin and Von Knorring where it showed about 88 patient who adolescent had psychosis about 4%of them committed suicide and 25% attempted Which showed that the patients who attempted were more depressed and showed negative symptoms of a psychotic episode, Along with more hospitalizations and Nicotine addiction.
As for this recent study, the participants had a written consent to participate and approval. The patients had assessments that they had to complete that includes interviews the collected sociodemographic characteristics and evaluation. To begin, they were given a questionnaire that includes 14 questions that are divided into two sections. The first ten are yes/no question where as to the second section it is about questions of family history of attempts and completed suicides. In the end of this study the results were that most of the participants were women with at least high school education.
The high percentages were unemployed of suicide attempters and the lower percentages wee from participants who used antipsychotics. It showed that suicide attempted were more depressed that suicide ideators. In this study show that suicidal behavior in Schizophrenia are not correlated to the psychotic symptoms but more to depressive mood. What has been recommended is to put more focus on in order to help schizophrenia patients to reduce depressive and guilty feelings and to help them achieve a higher self-esteem.
All these articles did research on schizophrenia whether it can be cause during fetal development, have an effect of an individual’s IQ and suicidal behavior in Schizophrenia. Each of these studies had their own ways of study in in the first article they sampled two populations by using past research comparing with their recent research. Following up, to the second article where their research was a case study where they they had 350 patients and over 90% had schizophrenia and they were to take a Wechsler Adult intelligence scale where in that performed worst compared the newer version. On the last article to see the suicide behavior in Schizophrenia they use a questionnaire to scale the three groups those who were called attempters, ideators, and the comparative group. In all on these articles their hypotheses did not make it through resulting that their research did not prove correlation with schizophrenia.
However, in the third article although there was not much information whether people with schizophrenia and suicidal behavior may have a higher risk of completing suicide it does show that after the research it recommended that clinicians should focus on more with patients in helping them increase their self esteem and help reduce their negative feelings.
In the first article what I believe was a good idea the wanted to sample off two different populations, but I think it would have been better if the sampled off two different countries rather than cities and see if they would collected similar results. Maybe they could have conducted a Correlational research so could help clarify the relationship between growth pattern and schizophrenia and the variables that cannot be examined. In the second article I found that it was good taking out previous research and comparing it with the recent study that they concluded with and seeing how by hand ing the participants The Wechsler Adult intelligence scale resulting the scores were lower compared to the now outdated version.