Essay about Changing Nature of Indian Party System
In the modern time political party has many important role of pre-codition of democratice system. They show an crucial link among society, various institutions of government and the people. And every political party has its own ideology.The party system originated from a ‘political center’ in political center there were general socio-economic background, the people of upper caste who belong to the political elite class, as educated, urban, especially middle and upper class.
Political party moblise people for their support and vote. They claim some menifesto and form chains of interest groups and link them to the government in power. When these party has not any power at that time it works like an opposition in organise protests against the government. However, where the political parties are found which are not developed nation, many parties participate freely popular support are infrequent. Party system is mainly based on historical roots, civil traditions, cultural orientations and economy. In our country the diversities of regional culture, the wide geographic spread of the country, the character of the state, the demands of social change and economic development affect the character of the party system. In our country first of all Congress came and it stablised an organization in 1885(A O Hume). In this party not only political groups are there but also political speakers and bargaining took place in that party. After that many other parties were formed later. Mainly there are three types of party system (1) Bi-party system (2) Multi-party system (3) One party system. Bi-party system and Multi-party system gives a choice for option but One party system does not give this type of option. In the democracy there should be parties to have a good leader in the country and that should be represented by the citizen of that country and he can provide good facilities to the citizen. Many people ask if traditional political parties should handle current situation when some challenges and crises increase apathy and distrust among the citizens of the country this encourage some alternative paths of political activities.
When any party does not have majority of the seats to be the government in the country in that situation many party collect to each other and make the government in the country. In India contrary to many parliamentary democracies of Europe but in many ways alike Westminster democracies, one party-majoritarian type governments shaped at the national level for a better part of the post-independence period as if it were ordained in the constitution. After Ninth Lok Sabha election (1989) there was some changes in the government and this seems to be development of the government in India it tries to changeover particularly if we see the first twenty year after the independence because at that time there is not any parties in the country in this situation every one has only one option to choose the congress and at that time many people were happy in that condition and this was the only condition of the citizen to choose the congress. In this time people are very cruel to support their party and many time they quarrel to each other to talk related to that party. Nowdays there are some important groups in Indian politics. And some students have become visible as political actors. For the national movement, university students were an important support base. After getting independence it has changed the nature of student activity. Before the Independence, issues were clear. At that time British Government had to be remove from power, and major social change had to be set up. But this time that student conflict is based on local issues focussing on University problems or local political struggles rather than or wider questions.
In india the administrative consolidation of congress had set in indication the political enlistment of masses. After that Indian National Congress worked very well on which the party system was based. The times of Indian National Congress can be devided into three different parts.
Fist Phase 1885-1905
This period is known as ‘Moderate Phase’ and the leaders who worked in this called as moderates. This time is famous for a movement of western educated indians, the upper aand middle class in its moderate phase. There were some people who believed in British justice and they were fathful to them. Dadabhai Naoroji was one of the leaders and he was called as ‘Grand old man of India’. He was the first indian person who became a member of House of Common in Britain. After that Womesh Chandrea Bonnerjee came and he became the first president of the Indian National Congress. And he also acted as standing Counsel.G Subramanya Aiyer, he invented ‘The Hindu’ newspaper and Tamil newspaper ‘Swadesamitran’ and in The Hindu he criticised British imperialism. And he is also known as the co founder of the Madras Sabha.
In this period party has some important aims and demands of moderates—- to provide education of massess, to tell people for their rights and organising public opinion. And the demand of separation of executive from the judiciary and decrease the taxes of the land revenue and to end the peasant oppression and freedom to speech and expression and the developing the modern capitalist industries in India. To implement these rights moderates follows some rulls like peaceful and constitutional methods and used petitions, resolutions, delegations and meetings to voice their demands. One bassicaly mathod they used to folow which were called as 3P—Prayers, Petition and Protest. And they have only one aim to get political rights and self-government under the British dominion.
Second Phase 1905-1916
This time is known as Swadesi Movement, Rise of Extremism & Mino-Morley Reforms. There were some causes for the rise of extremism like failure of the doerates to get any success other than the expansion of the legislative councils by the IC Act 1892. And some where British did not give any felief measures by which nearly ninty lakh people died. And moderates had no power to force ritish to take any measures. After the partition of Bengal, all the parts of National Congrass had united to oppose the partition and supported to the Swadeshi and Boycott movement of Bengal. After that there was a lot of devates and discutions between moderate and the militant nationalists. While after some time they wanted to extedn the mass movement in Bengal and in the rest of the country. And there was a struglle between the militant nationalists and moderates for the president-ship of the NC. In the last Dadabhai Naoroji was respected and then it was chosen as a compromise
Third phase (1916-1947)
The third phase of the INC is related to Gandhian era. In this time M.K. Gandhi became a leader and he employed nonviolence and satyagraha against the british Rule. He lanched many satyagraha in many places like Kheda, Bihar, Ahmedabad and many another places at this time Gandhi had many followers as Sardar Vallabhai Patl. In this moments many times Gandhi was arrested and many movement are going on like Jllianwala Bag Massacre, Khilafat Movement.