Changing Nature of Indian Party System

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Updated: Mar 14, 2023
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In the modern time political party has many important role of pre-condition of democratic system. They show a crucial link among society, various institutions of government and the people. And every political party has its own ideology.The party system originated from a ‘political center’ in political center there were general socio-economic background, the people of upper caste who belong to the political elite class, as educated, urban, especially middle and upper class. Party system is related to some parts—Social, Economy, Political, International system.

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Political party mobiles people for their support and vote. They claim some manifesto and form chains of interest groups and link them to the government in power. When these party has not any power at that time it works like an opposition in organise protests against the government. However, where the political parties are found which are not developed nation, many parties participate freely popular support are infrequent. Party system is mainly based on historical roots, civil traditions, cultural orientations and economy. In our country the diversities of regional culture, the wide geographic spread of the country, the character of the state, the demands of social change and economic development affect the character of the party system. In our country first of all Congress came and it stabilised an organization in 1885(A O Hume). In this party not only political groups are there but also political speakers and bargaining took place in that party. After that many other parties were formed later. Mainly there are three types of party system (1) Bi-party system (2) Multi-party system (3) One party system. Bi-party system and Multi-party system gives a choice for option but One party system does not give this type of option. In the democracy there should be parties to have a good leader in the country and that should be represented by the citizen of that country and he can provide good facilities to the citizen. Many people ask if traditional political parties should handle current situation when some challenges and crises increase apathy and distrust among the citizens of the country this encourage some alternative paths of political activities.

When any party does not have majority of the seats to be the government in the country in that situation many party collect to each other and make the government in the country. In India contrary to many parliamentary democracies of Europe but in many ways similarly Westminster democracies, one party-majoritarian type governments shaped at the national level for a better part of the post-independence period as if it were ordained in the constitution. After Ninth Lok Sabha election (1989) there was some changes in the government and this seems to be development of the government in India it tries to changeover particularly if we see the first twenty year after the independence because at that time there is not any parties in the country in this situation everyone has only one option to choose the congress and at that time many people were happy in that condition and this was the only condition of the citizen to choose the congress. In this time people are very cruel to support their party and many times they quarrel to each other to talk related to that party. Nowadays there are some important groups in Indian politics. And some students have become visible as political actors. For the national movement, university students were an important support base. After getting independence it has changed the nature of student activity. Before the Independence, issues were clear. At that time British Government had to be removing from power, and major social change had to be set up. But this time that student conflict is based on local issues focusing on University problems or local political struggles rather than or wider questions.

In India the administrative consolidation of congress had set in indication the political enlistment of masses. After that Indian National Congress worked very well on which the party system was based. The times of Indian National Congress can be divided into three different parts.

First Phase 1885 to 1905

This period is known as ‘Moderate Phase’ and the leaders who worked in this called as moderates. This time is famous for a movement of western educated Indians, the upper and middle class in its moderate phase. There were some people who believed in British justice and they were faithful to them. Dadabhai Naoroji was one of the leaders and he was called as ‘Grand old man of India’. He was the first Indian person who became a member of House of Common in Britain. After that Womesh Chandrea Bonnerjee came and he became the first president of the Indian National Congress. And he also acted as standing Counsel Subramanian Ayer, he invented ‘The Hindu’ newspaper and Tamil newspaper ‘Swadesamitran’ and in The Hindu he criticized British imperialism. And he is also known as the co-founder of the Madras Sabha.

In this period party has some important aims and demands of moderates—- to provide education of masses, to tell people for their rights and organizing public opinion. And the demand of separation of executive from the judiciary and decrease the taxes of the land revenue and to end the peasant oppression and freedom to speech and expression and the developing the modern capitalist industries in India. To implement these rights moderates follows some rulls like peaceful and constitutional methods and used petitions, resolutions, delegations and meetings to voice their demands. One basically method they used to follow which were called as 3P—Prayers, Petition and Protest. And they have only one aim to get political rights and self-government under the British dominion.

Second Phase 1905 to1916

This time is known as Swadeshi Movement, Rise of Extremism & Mino-Morley Reforms

There were some causes for the rise of extremism like failure of the doe rates to get any success other than the expansion of the legislative councils by the IC Act 1892. And somewhere British did not give any relief measures by which nearly ninety lakh people died. And moderates had no power to force British to take any measures. After the partition of Bengal, all the parts of National Congress had united to oppose the partition and supported to the Swadeshi and Boycott movement of Bengal. After that there were a lot of debates and discussions between moderate and the militant nationalists. While after some time they wanted to extend the mass movement in Bengal and in the rest of the country. And there was a struggle between the militant nationalists and moderates for the president-ship of the NC. In the last Dadabhai Naoroji was respected and then it was chosen as a compromise

Third phase (1916 to1947)

The third phase of the INC is related to Gandhian era. In this time M.K. Gandhi became a leader and he employed nonviolence and Satyagraha against the British Rule. He launched many satyagraha in many places like Kheda, Bihar, Ahmedabad and many another places at this time Gandhi had many followers as Sardar Vallabhai Patel. In this moments many times Gandhi was arrested and many movement are going on like Jllianwala Bag Massacre, Khilafat Movement. In this there is some most important parties one of them is Swaraj Party.

After the failure of Non-Cooperation Movement in 1922 there is a Congress meeting and at that time Congress divided and that there were two parties are there and one of them is Swaraj Party (1st January 1923) due to Motilal Nehru and Chittranjan Das, wanted to make another group. After that they wanted to participate in the election in Nov 1923 there were an election to Legislative Councils in this election Swaraj party got success. In the center Motilal Nehru became a leader and in the Bengal there were Chittranjan Das. Swaraj party did many important works like it changed the important parts of Act of 1919.

Congress Socialist Party (CSP), this party was a left group within the Congress and it was established by Acharya Narendra Deva who was appointed as President and Jay Prakash Narayan worked as General Secretary (1934). Its first meeting was held in bombing in Oct 1934 this meeting was under the sampurnananda. In this meeting they declare to develop the economy life and forcing trade etc.

After independence

In 1947 we got Independence from the Britishers and they left us to divide our nation into two countries India and Pakistan. Pakistan also divided into two parts East Pakistan and West Pakistan and after some time East Pakistan became Bangladesh.

When the Britician left our nation at that time people faces many problems like how our nation will grow up, how will it work, which types of rules will be there to follow the people and how will we create a great nation. When India found independent from the British it found independence from social, economic and political problems.

There was a tension between India and Pakistan due to division of assets and there was a financial settlement of 1947 in this settlement India had pay 55 crores as the assets. The Refugee Problem when our nation was divided there were many people who wanted to live in Pakistan and some wanted to live in India and according to this there were a lot of wars and conflict between both the countries. There was one problematic place was there which is the boarder of both the countries named Jammu and Kashmir. At the time of separation there was a Hindu king named Maharaja Hari Singh and the 75% of the citizen of Kashmir was Muslims and this became very important for both India and Pakistan. Sheik Abdullah wanted to integrate Kashmir with India some were saying that it would be independent and some wanted it to integrate with Pakistan.

The National Congress of India (1952 to 1967)

In the British Era multiparty system was sown but they were not so famous as Indian National Congress. In the 1951 there were four major groups of the parties when first election was held they were Congress, Socialist Party, Kisan Mazdoor Praja Party. These were apart from the Communist Party of India, Hindu Mahasdabha, Ram Rajya Parishad, Bhartiya Jan Sangh and so on. And some regional parties were also there like Tamilnadu Congress, Praja Party, Akhil Dal, Jharkhand Party Scheduled Caste Federation etc.

When first election was held in that election Congress got 45 percent votes and 364 seats out of 489 seats in the Lok Sabha. And in the State Assemblies it also got 68 percent seats with over 42 percent vote share. In that election 14 parties were participated but in that only five parties could retain their status as the national party (Congress, Socialist Party, KMPP, CPI and BJS). In that Congress got many seats because it had participated in the freedom movement and it had public support and another thig is that the democracy of Indian system was not fully developed.

Decline of Congress (1967 to 1989)

In election 1967 there were fourth General election its seats were decreased and It lost its power and in the time of Indra Gandhi there were emergencies in that case union became very powerful. Indra Gandhi wanted to emphasized herself and she did not give much importance to the party by which party started to decrease its position in the Emergency many person left the party and joined the opposition party (Janata Party).

In 1977 Janata Government came into the power and first time Congress was defeated and in the future people have no hope for Congress. After that BJP was created in 1980 and it solved the problem of dual membership issue. When Indra Gandhi was assassinated at that time BJP came in form and AB Vajpayee started to follow the ideas of Gandhi in the support of Hindu majority in North India. And in INC there were some corruptions which decrease its power.

Coalition Era (1989-till date)

In the time period of 1989 to 1996 three central governments was found, there was a coalition government with the support of left and BJP and this party was under the VP Singh. After some days this warty started to work with BJP after that the government was made by Chandra Shekhar and IK Gujaral with the support of Congress. After that PV Sing made their government and it was minority government and it was managed with defection and at that time many parties were created on the basis of cast (BSP, SP, RJD), after the creation of so many parties it started to work like silence revolution. In 1990 there were a Rath Yatra for Ram temple by L.K. Advani and this increase the image of BJP and it came in image it got chance to Govern by President. But it failed to get full majority and it started to prove its coalition strategies later. After that in the support of Congress I, Janata Dal came in power during the period of 1996 to 1999. After the remaining of the Government in 1998 BJP entered with the coalition by A. B. Vajpayee as National Democratic Alliance by which but it was fell down in 1999 and as a result BJP and NDA secured majority in 1999 election and it got many seats and next election in 2004 BJP was unable to win the election and after that UPA came in power with the support of Congress and Manmohan Singh led government ten years.

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Changing nature of Indian party system. (2020, Apr 14). Retrieved from