A Child Raising a Child
Teenage pregnancy is a social problem very much prevalent in both developing and developed countries. Developing countries following the sexual behaviour patterns of developed countries without utilizing the levels of services and education for teenagers are suffering the consequences of increased teen pregnancy and sexually-transmitted diseases. Ignorance about sexuality and reproduction among parents, teachers and teenagers increase the early exposure to intercourse and unwanted pregnancies. Excessive poverty and being the child of a teen mother are risk factors of repeating early pregnancy. Teaching proper comprehensive sexual education to teenagers to reduce adolescent pregnancy is discussed as well as the social factors associated with teen pregnancy such as socioeconomic levels, religion, and an access to healthcare.
Teen pregnancy happens often worldwide, even though it is known that a young mothers suffer from more complications. While teen pregnancy rates have drastically decreased within the last two decades in the United States of America, it is still a huge problem in many southern states. Background, sexual education, and religion have an impact on teen birth rates. Teen Pregnancy Teen Pregnancy Statistics Teenage pregnancy has been at an all-time low in the United States of America but is still higher compared to many other developed countries.
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According to the CDC, “Mississippi has one of the highest teen pregnancy rates in the US, second to Arkansas, with a rate of 31.0 births per 1,000 teen girls” compared to the national average of 18.8 (cdc.gov, 2017, para. 1). But this does not consider outlying factors such as stillbirths, miscarriages, or abortions. On average those that identify as non-Hispanic black and Hispanic are more likely to get pregnant compared to their white counterparts.
In the studies that the World Health Organization conducted, “Approximately 16 million girls aged 15 to 19 years and 2.5 million girls under age 16 years give birth in developing regions” (who.int, 2018, para. 2). Considering that the majority of the world is undeveloped by Human Development Index terms, this is important to note because of the increased accessibility to prevention methods such birth control and contraceptives in developed countries.
Effects of Teen Pregnancy
Most girls that have children in their teen years are still likely to attend high school but less likely to graduate. Even fewer of these teen moms continue their education or graduate with a college degree. Additionally, there are copious mental health issues that can appear or worsen from the stress of being a mother. Unfortunately, attending school only adds to their stressful situation. Diana Reese wrote that “Researchers have found that twice as many teen moms are at risk of developing postpartum depression (PPD) as their older counterparts” (selini.org, 2018, par 1).
This is a serious condition that some teens might not understand and those around them might not support them in getting the proper help that they need. A lack of prenatal care, another factor common amongst teen pregnancies, is a major contributor to birth complication. However, none of these effects compare to those that impact the baby. Factors such as premature birth, high blood pressure for both the baby and the mother, and low birth weight can arise from teen pregnancy.
Causes of Teen Pregnancy When looking a map of teen pregnancy, a concentration of area majority where there is a higher teen pregnancy rates are located within the Bible Belt. A case study had found that, “?At the level of states in the U.S., conservative religious beliefs predict teen birth rates highly and significantly” (Strayhorn & Strayhorn, 2009, par 46). This is because there is strong correlation between religion and teaching abstinence-only sex education and contraception use.
Those that are not taught to use contraception often have sex without knowing all of the consequences that come with it. This is backed up in an article made by nurses on sex education in the US. It states, “Research published in the Journal of Adolescent Health concluded that when sex education included information about contraception, teens had a lower risk of pregnancy than adolescents who received abstinence-only or no sex education” (nursing.usc.edu, 2017, par. 21). This shows that something needs to be changed about the way that sexual education is taught in America and the way that parents and educators alike need to come together in order to make sure that teens know the dangers that coincide with sex and pregnancy.
The scope of possible explanation comes from social/cultural influences and access to health care. ?Factors such as family income, education, and occupational status affect pregnancy outcomes. The incidence of preterm delivery, birth weight, and perinatal death correlate to socioeconomic conditions. Support networks help mothers, especially young mothers, to cope physically, emotionally and psychologically during pregnancy. Healthy interpersonal relationships with family, friends and greater community foster better health through physical and emotional support.
This has been seen to give better outcomes during pregnancy. Moreover, personal health practices are pertinent. This alludes to the mother’s association with the use of recreational drugs, alcohol consumption, smoking and nature of diet. Furthermore, equity issues affect teen pregnancy rates. Disparities in race and location have been the base of equality in access to healthcare. This can cause complications in pregnancy outcomes due to insufficient prenatal care. Also, differences in healthcare services depend on the difference of communities. Availability also has an effect on pregnancy outcomes.
In this study, data was compiled by researching several topics related to teen pregnancy. Statistics about teen pregnancy rates were from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization. Information on the postpartum depression came from Seleni Institute, where they work to raise awareness of the mental health disorders that come along with having a child for both the mothers and fathers. Information about the correlation between teen pregnancy and religion was provided by peer-reviewed journal article.
The information about sex education was provided by Southern California University’s nursing staff in a article comparing the types of sex education give in different states of the united states. Results Study of Race correlating with Teenage Pregnancy Race White Black Hispanic Total Pregnant Yes 14.3 29.3 31.9 75.5 No 985.7 970.7 968.1 2924.5 Total 1000 1000 1000 3000 Odds ratios for the racial demographics of black, white, and Hispanic are as followed: Black teenage girls are 1.17 times more likely to get pregnant than non-black teenage girls. White teenage girls are 0.56 times more likely to get pregnant than non-white teenage girls.
The racial background of a person is a huge factor of whether that person will become pregnant or not. Those that come from non-white house backgrounds are more likely to have a child during their teen years. Those that are not white have higher chances of being poorer, which is a common difference between those that become a teen parent and those that do not. Conclusion The only way that teen pregnancy can be prevented is if the education system changes the way that sex education is taught. Those that are religious should find ways that there make sure that their children are making smart decisions even if those decisions might be against their ethics. A person’s background effects a person’s risk of getting pregnant the most.
Errors and Improvements The errors within the study come from the ambiguity of the topic. The scope of teen pregnancy could be looked at microscopically or macroscopically. This broad range could have led to a skewed perception of factors and/or data interpretation. To improve aspects of the study, a unique aspect of teen pregnancy could be examined.