20th Century Nationalism
What happened during the 20th Century?: The World War I
World War I began on July 29th, 1914 and it all started because Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia but this was just the beginning because soon the whole world erupts into war. Throughout the month of August the World War really broke out. On the first of August Germany declared war on Russia. Germany wanted to make sure that they could strive so they decided to sign an alliance agreement with Turkey. Not only that but France stated that they were going to support Russia and become an alliance with them to help them fight off the Germans. On August second the Germans have already invaded Luxembourg Russia and just one day after that, they declared war on France. In the beginning of the first World War, Germany seemed to be taking over. On the fourth of August Germany now declared war on Belgium but finally someone declared war on Germany. While the Britains declared war on Germany the United Stated stated that they were going to remain neutral. (Inscription on the Liberty Memorial Tower, 2018).
On the 10th, France declares war on Austria- Hungary and on the 11th, Montenegro declared war on Germany. On the 12th, Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary and on the 23rd, Germany invaded Frances while Austria-Hungary invaded Russian Roland. Not only that but also on that day, Japan finally joined the war declaring war on Germany. On the 27th, Austria-Hungary declares war on Belgium and the Russians become defeated at the battle of Tannenberg. On September 9th the Germans invaded France and just two months later the Germans started to surrender because of the weather. By October 6th Serbia was invaded by the Germans, Austria, and Bulgaria. As Germany was invading many of the countries, in April of 1916, Belgians were sent to Germany to be used as forced Labor. On April 6th 1917, the United Stated became part of the war by declaring war on Germany because of all the destruction Germany was causing for all of those countries. President Wilson ended up creating a peace treaty which was then signed on June 29th to end the war. (Inscription on the Liberty Memorial Tower, 2018).
What happened during the 20th Century?: The Holocaust
The beginning of the holocaust all started in 1930 with help from the Great Depression to help the Nazi’s win votes. In 1932, the Nazi’s won “with 37 percent of the vote and became Germanys largest political party (Buchsbaum, 1993, pg. 7). In January of 1933, Hitler was finally named as Germany’s chancellor and this is when the acts of the holocaust finally started. Soon after Hitler became chancellor the Reichstag was burned down and just the next day a Dutch communist was blamed. This one accusation caused Hitler to create a rules about communists and their acts of violence. Just another month later the first concentration camp of Germany was opened. This first concentration camp was just the start to many more that were used during the holocaust. Hitler soon started to create some anti Jewish laws “banning jews from many service jobs (Buchsbaum, 1993, pg. 7). Just a month after the first anti Jewish laws, Hitler enforced that all politic parties except the Nazi’s were to be banned.
In 1934, Hitler started enforcing the loyal Germans to spy on the Jews and the disloyal Germans and it wasn’t too long after that when he started stripping the Jewish of their citizenship of Germany. Three years later in 1937, a mass population of the Jews had fled from Germany because of the way they were being treated. By 1938, Hitler started arresting the Jews and placing a lot of them into their concentration camps. At this point Hitler wanted to use the concentration camps to use Jews for slave labor and later that year Hitler sent the Nazi’s police to make sure that there were no types of Jews let living in Germany. By September 1939, “Germany invades Poland, officially beginning World War II” and 250,000 Jews were killed by December. (Buchsbaum, 1993, pg. 9). This was around the time that the holocaust ended because World War II became the priority. (Buchsbaum, 1993, pg. 6-9).
What happened during the 20th Century?: The World War II
World War II began when Hitler invaded Poland and “Britain declares war on September 3rd. Canada, not independent, joins on September 10th in 1939 (Granatstein, 2014, pg. 28). In 1940, this part of the second world war involved the Canadians and the Germans and it was knows as the war at sea. This is when both Germany and Canada attacked each other through their naval boats. At the end of 1941, the Japanese died in battle against the Canadians. From this point on Canada was seen as the only way to destroy Germany. Throughout 1944, the Canadians start in Normandy and battles their way across Europe for about eleven months. In may of 1945, Germany decides to surrender which is the start of the end of World War II. (Granatstein, 2014, pg. 28-29).
What happened during the 20th Century?: The Russian Revolution
The Russian Revolution basically occurred because of collapse of their empire. The collapse of the empire all started with a protest form the women. “The first World War is upending Russia’s economy and has already killed or wounded nine million of its citizens. In protest, women take to the streets on International Women’s Day to demand bread and peace (Royal Academy, 2017). On March 2nd of 1917, Tsar Nicholas II dismisses the protests and because of this “is eventually forced to abdicate to Serbia, leaving a provisional government in power (Royal Academy, 2017). Now because of the new government in power, the Civil War breaks out including the Britain and the United States on November 17th. In March of 1918, Russia ends up surrendering from World War I. In case of the Germans attacking Russia, the Bolshevik party decided to move the capital from Petrograd to Moscow. In July, Tsar and his family end up being murdered from the Bolshevik party causing Russia to have Emperor. In October of 1922, the Civil war finally ended which resulted in the Formation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) in December. (Royal Academy, 2017).
Bart?k was born on March 25th, 1881 and died on September 26th 1945 and known as a Hungarian composer. He ended up dying in New York City due to leukemia but is considered one of the greatest composers of the 20th century. Bart??k married twice and had two children. He started playing piano at a very young age and “by the age of 4 he was able to play 40 songs (Kaufmann, 2016). By the age of 11 Bart??k gave his first public recital. Hungarian folk music had a huge impact on his compositional style and became the basis of his works. “Bart?k began to incorporate folk songs into his own compositions and write original folk-like tunes, as well as frequently using folksy rhythmic figures (Kaufmann, 2016).
He studied “piano under Istvan Thomas and composition under Janos Koessler at the Royal Academy (Kaufmann, 2016). Later Bart??k became a piano professor at the Royal Academy in 1907. Bart??k really wanted this job because this allowed him to stay in Hungary instead being forced to go to Europe to tour on piano. Bart??k wrote stage works, orchestral works, concertante works, choral, chamber, and piano pieces. his String Quartet No. 6 was known as his most popular piece and this piece was able to help his financial burdens.
Bart?k: Nationalism / Culture Effects
Bart??k considered himself as a true Hungarian composer and was known for being one of the best Hungarian composers in the 20th century. He saw himself as such of a true Hungarian composer that he wrote his mom a letter that, “criticized her for speaking German rather than Hungarian. Here he stated his own position on the national question: For my own part, I will in all my doings and in every way serve only one purple: the competition of the Hungarian nation and the hungarian fatherland (Brincker, 2004, pg. 584). Bart??k wrote some compositions that were appointed for Hungarian hero’s. One piece that was written was a large orchestral work called Kossuth. Kossuth “honored Lajos Kossuth, hero of the Hungarian revolution of 1848 (Kaufmann, 2016).
The holocaust had a huge impact on Bart??k’s music and Bart??k himself as a composer. Bart??k may have been a nationalistic composer but “he disapproved of the Hungarian government’s relationship with Nazi Germany (McKee, n.d).