Review of Article “Devices in Heart Failure”
How it works
According to the article, “Devices in Heart Failure” by Shahzeb M. Munir et. al (2008), Congestive Heart failure has been a threat to the US population, and it has been one of the most serious medical conditions which have accounted for 6.5 million days of hospitalization on an annual basis. The researchers have sought ways through which they can apply to inhibit the progression of congestive heart failure via the device and pharmacologic-based therapies. The investigators have placed the study problem within the context of existing knowledge. There have been efforts that have been put towards ensuring that they have improved and developed the device-based therapies. The therapies have been aimed at improving cardiac reserve and optimizing the pump function to meet the metabolic requirements. The study will solve the issue of cardiac failure which has been a threat to very many lives in the US and around the globe. The study will also deal with conditions that are well-known to be worsening cardiac failure. The condition that is known to worsen the latter is decompensation, end-organ damage and new-onset arrhythmias among other conditions. Once the doctors have identified some of the above-listed conditions among others that are believed to be associated with cardiac failure they may promote the use of preventive measures.
According to Munir, the purpose of the research is to identify ways through which cardiac failure can be timely identified. It is obvious that if cardiac failure is identified, it will be possible to use means through which it can be managed and thus will save the lives of many people who will be suffering from cardiac failure. Earlier identification also will ensure that the patients will not be adversely affected by the disease. It will also lower the number of the deaths that the disease has been causing each and every year. Some of the concepts that have been defined in the literature review include atrial fibrillation which is linked with increasing the likelihood of death taking place. Dries DL, Gersh BJ and Doman ski MJ have looked at the possibility of the latter causing worsening the condition of cardiac failure and found out that it increases the risk of death. Also, the effects of enalapril on mortality in severe congestive heart failure have also been dealt with. The article also has tackled on electrical and structural remodeling explaining how to maintain atrial fibrillation. The references were not current; there were references that dated back as early as the 1970s going all the way up to 2000s. The reason behind having references that were not current is that the study concerning cardiac failure dates back decades ago and thus the scientists have been studying since then.
How it works
According to the author, almost all disciplines are related in some way, and thus it would be wrong if it is concluded that nursing does not depend on other disciplines. It depends on technology in that the patient’s heart rate has to be monitored by electrical instruments that are employing a certain technology. The instruments that are also used to monitor the patients are also manufactured following concepts from other disciplines. For instance, there is a machine that is used to measure the heart rate in indices, and electrocardiographic tools are used in intensifying patients at the risk of SCD. The articles have stated a theoretical framework; the study exists since it is trying to establish ways through which cardiac failure can be dealt with because it has proved to be a serious issue among the globe’s population.
The study question is has been stated in the article by Munir. It states, how congestive heart failure can be prevented or how the risks associated with the disease can be reduced across the world. The independent variable is that disease whereas the dependent are the risks that are associated with the disease. There are operational definitions of the variables that are started in the hypotheses. And they are concrete and measurable. The problem is well-stated, and some of the ways that are meant to handle the issue have been dealt with. For instance, within the study, the authors have clearly stated that there have been some steps already made that are focused on addressing the disease, cardiac failure.
The basic research was conducted when the article was to be written. This is the type of research that is meant to enhance knowledge and is not meant for immediate commercial purposes. It is a kind of research that is done for the human welfare, and hence the name basic research. The key idea behind the basic research is to expand the man’s knowledge concerning a particular subject. The study involved deductive reasoning; it utilized data that was collected and then concluded by looking at the data. It involves moving from generalized principles that are already known to be true to a true and specific conclusion.
According to Munir, the study was conducted on a sample size of 1,470 participants who developed AF, CHF, or both. A total of 382 participants who took part in the study had developed both AF and CHF, and 41 % of the group had developed CHF first. The study was conducted in New York City, USA. The study employed the probability sampling methods since it guarantees that the sample chosen represents the population under study. The study involved a probability sampling since it took into consideration the people who had suffered; this is clearly stated above. The researchers used the Test-Retest Reliability, where they are to obtain results that are consistent across time. Assessing test-retest reliability needs the researchers to measure on the group of people at one time and then use the same group again and again. It is after they have retested that they look at whether the tests are consistent with what they had earlier obtained. The research used excels in analyzing its data that had earlier been collected. After the data was collected, it was analyzed in excel and presented in terms of graphs. One of the findings in the study is that sudden cardiac deaths account for around 300000 to 400000 deaths in the US every year. A large number of the people whose deaths have been caused by cardiac failure have been linked to SCD. The percentage of the people who survived after suffering from cardiac failure was around 1.4 % of the patients who were admitted to the hospital.
In conclusion, despite the efforts put towards managing the patients of CHF, clinical practice still lacks the monitoring and diagnostic methods that can deal with the disease. The disease still remains a live-claimer that has all the time caused deaths. Most of the patients who end up admitted into a hospital; it is only a small percentage of that makes out of the hospital wards alive. However, those diagnosed with cardiac failure can still be saved by having them monitored all the time closely. This is because the doctors will easily recognize any condition that is known to worsen the situation and hence prevent it. There has also been the development of devices that are designed in such a way that they can predict complications by measuring the mental pathophysiologic processes that are involved in the CHF (congestive heart failure). It is recommended that the patients suffering CHF ought to seek medical attention early so that the conditions that have proved to worsen the situation can be reduced. The strengths of this study are that it utilized a population that can be thought to present a population. It also took into consideration the people who were known to be suffering from the disease. This meant that the information and the conclusion that entailed the report were true. The findings that were uncovered after the report was released will help improve the ways through which the disease can be managed and maybe later on the scientists can come up with ways to Cure the disease too based on the earlier information collected.