Background: There are many theoretical frameworks in behavioral science that act as baselines for possible intervention programs that are successful in assessing most social determinants leading to unhealthy behaviors. These unhealthy behaviors often lead to life threatening diseases that are caused from behavioral leading activity. The use of tobacco in hookah (waterpipe) smoking is an important selection targeted for planned intervention programs.
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Though there are several theories that can be used to help plan, create and evaluate subsequent intervention programs for tobacco use, successful outcomes are usually based upon the usage of an appropriate theoretical model. In behavioral science research, it is imperative that the targeted health issue is assigned a theoretical model that will help identify critical factors that are causing unhealthy activity or behaviors. Without this understanding, an intervention program can be unsuccessful leading to little or no change in these harmful behaviors.
Additionally, first exploring and building upon evidence based intervention programs can be hopeful towards positive evaluation outcomes.The use of suitable theoretical models is essential for the reduction or cessation of using Tobacco in the form of hookah (water pipe) smoking. Several behavioral interventions for tobacco uses is recognized and either have been very successful or less successful. These interventions uses concepts that are based upon interpersonal factors such as relationships with family and friends, communities, and some other external factors that may influence this behavior (Roberts, et al., 2013). Interventions that may use interpersonal perspectives can be educational interventions where there is material that teaches about the health related issues of tobacco use in schools and universities (Roberts, et al.,2013). These types of interventions have been successful in reducing the rates of hookah use amongst adolescents and young adults. Additionally there are also interventions that uses technology to spread awareness about the dangers of Tobacco smoking. Some of these include telephone counseling where individuals can seek help from the comfort of their homes or anywhere else, this essentially addresses the access component of a person’s life. If Tobacco in the form of hookah smoking is easily accessed, shouldn’t self-help be also?(Roberts, et al., 2013)
Text messaging has been seen as an alternate way of intervention, and can be more promising when making aware to adolescents and young adults. These texting interventions may provide motivational quotes that can induce a change in behavior. Counseling Counseling in addiction is a historic intervention often used for cessation purposes and there are many ways that counseling it provided. The types of counseling usually employed are one on one patient centered therapeutic counseling where there is a therapist and patient contact. This sort of contact allows for a personal and private self -assessment and has been successful though sometimes produces prescription medication for maintenance. Group therapy counseling where shared addiction amongst multiple people is discussed and most recently telephone counseling which allows those who may not have access or time to dial in on a counseling session.(Roberts, et al., 2013). Telephone counseling has been shown to have a great effect on those who are interested in quitting tobacco use or have already quit using and are now keeping momentum.
Maintaining a behavioral change such as stopping an addiction can be difficult based on multiple life stressors (Sinha, 2008). Chronic stress has been linked to show predisposition for relapse in addiction and unhealthy behaviors that often lead to fatality. Telephone counseling allows for a few interactions at the comfort and convenience for the individual. These interactions are usually encouragement for those who may need an outlet when they are feeling overwhelmed and stressed. Theories applied Planning the application of a theory in behavioral intervention is essential to the quality, the outcome and evaluation of the program. There are theories that are widely popular such as the health belief model and the cognitive model however; these theories sometimes do not address some of the most detrimental pieces of an person’s life at large. Overall applying theories could allow for a better qualitative evaluation outcome in the end. Some theories that were found to be useful in research were the BASNEF model and the PRIME theory of human motivation otherwise known as the theory of human motivation. BASNEF model The BASNEF (Beliefs, Attitudes,Subjective norms and enabling factors) model used for establishing a baseline to describe behavioral actions, has been seen to be successful in intervening tobacco use(Momenabadi, et al., 2017). In somes studies this model has been used in conjunction with educational interventions and have been effective in reducing the desire for using tobacco.
This model focuses on on the core four components that shapes an individual’s perspective and behavior. It helps identify those factors that contribute to the unhealthy behaviors and helping change the perspectives at which are causing the stress and addiction (Arani, et al., 2016). PRIME theory The PRIME (Plans, Response, Impulses,Motives and Evaluations) theory of human motivation introduces a way to understand what motivates a person to engage in such addictive behaviors like tobacco use (Roberts, et al., 2013). It breaks down the variety of perspectives in which a person possess that creates the impulse to use. The application of this theory has been well researched and found to be successful in that it looks at the present thought process. Things such as identity, self control and choice are all recognized in the PRIME theory and are different aspects of addictive behavior. In conclusion, though there are many behavioral interventions in research that have been proven to be successful in reducing tobacco use, theories that are tailored by concepts that provide further understanding of human perspectives are a better. While there are solid interventions that provides both individual and public help, the importance of evaluating all factors within the lives of those that struggle with tobacco use addiction, is imperative to cessation. In the future, there is hope that there will be more research addressing this importance and that the use of theoretical models in conjunction with educational interventions will be implemented more.
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