Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder ADHD
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurological condition that involves behavioral conditions that interrupts a person’s everyday requests and routines with adults and children (APA, 2013). ADHD first appeared in the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) in 1968 and was known as Hyperkinetic Reaction of Childhood, which implies the focus on the excessive motor activity (Epstein & Loren, 2013). Throughout the years of research with ADHD, there has been changes with the diagnostic criteria that indicates other focuses of the disorder. The DSM 5 is the latest update of ADHD nosology, which was not as distinct and a change in neuropsychological abnormalities that correlate with genetic phenotypes (Epstein & Loren, 2013).
There are different types of ADHD with adults and children depending on when they were diagnosed. Adults are a little more difficult to find out when they were experiencing the symptoms (usually by the age of 12) and if the ADHD characteristics have changed over their time and perfecting symptoms. Adults and children can be identified by their current symptoms and correlating the diagnostic criteria (A thru E) (Epstein & Loren, 2013). The different types for all symptomatic ADHD are for 12 years and older due to the understanding of the inattentiveness and hyperactive impulsive symptoms prior to 12 years of age (APA, 2013). Problem Statement The increased risk of physical and cognitive behavior problems in adolescent children with ADHD as a result of parents’ non-compliance of medically suggested and regulated therapies. Consequences of not utilizing assisted therapies could increase personal, family, and social relationships, which could demonstrate stress (i.e. disturbed sleep), behavioral issues, unhealthy eating patterns, or physical inabilities. Contributing factors of parent’s incompliance are lack of parent education with ADHD symptoms or guidance of stability with therapies medically suggested and regulated, and possible undiagnosed parents with ADHD.
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Research indicates there is a need for more information with corresponding practice parameters advocated by the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (Bussing et.al., 2012). There examinations required the effectiveness of evidence-based practices (EBP) with parent education, management of school settings, and counseling for the adolescent with the parents. Using EBP for treatments takes patience and guidance from a professional if provided to the guardians of the adolescent. The parents will not only benefit from the education, but the adolescent with gather a more in-depth understanding of what is expected and what science understands they are needing to do for self-improvement. The use of using the professional contributors, for example, school teachers and counselors, behavioral and family counselors, and the medical provider will help engage and influence the teen, educate the parents for further compliance of therapies provided.
Complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) are another avenue of evidence-based outcome, although it is under researched (Bussing et. al., 2012). Since the suggested treatments are more than CAM practices, studies provide pharmacological therapies to assist with behavioral issues of anxiety, sleep problems, and cognitive abilities. Current research observes the multimodal treatment with medications in improving behavior and academic achievement in children with ADHD. The dosages of the medications are used by the reports and the structure of the parents, child, teachers and physicians (Frisch, Moser, Hawley, Johnston, & Romereim, 2003). The medications are stimulants or non-stimulants, and could be used in accordance to the reports by the collection of resources, which are also suggested to be discussed for an understanding of how the medications work and what signs or symptoms to be on the watch for in classroom or at home (Frisch, Moser, Hawley, Johnston, & Romereim, 2003).
Using all bases of treatments (CAM and pharmacological therapies) are highly recommended. If therapies are not followed there are possibilities of a discontented and unsuccessful lifestyle with both family and self-management of the child.
Review of the Literature
The diagnosis of ADHD is known to be characterized as a neurological disorder of the brain, which could affect the children with ADHD academic successes or physical and cognitive behaviors. Although, research has theoretical framework analyzing the parents that may not understand the benefits of treatments, and may cause inabilities of their child improvements with CAM and pharmacological use. Reviews of CAM and pharmacological has shown to be imperative treatments to empower self-improvement or self-management and with parental assistance (Shire, 2017). Specific therapies have not been standardized, rather than a multitude of therapies that have minimal research.
Shire (2017) and Searight et. al. (2012) explained the use of CAM therapies as the use of natural abilities, nutritional and/or physical activity guidance, use of supplementation, natural and healthy perspective to lead the lives of ADHD at any age. The nutrients being used are shown to provide the cognitive capacities needed to clear neurological pathways and stabilize hormones as the human grows (Shire, 2017 and Searight et. al., 2012). Conclusive findings with studies similar to integrate CAM therapies with other therapies, such as pharmacological usage, are finding how the body reacts with greater stimulus cognitively and physically while in a calmer state (Shire, 2017). The APA (2016) suggests similar interventions to provide education about these CAM therapies to parents, and the diagnosed adolescent with ADHD are the most beneficial.
The articles reviewed in my literature review for ADHD and sleep analysis has similar conclusions of the importance of sleep analysis, the education and guidance for the parents, and the spatial memory working abilities. The importance of all articles reviewed is part of the collaborative measures of the pathological triad with ADHD. The parents have a huge impact of the intervention processes to promote the highest capabilities of their adolescent(s). Cognitive interventions to demonstrate the efficiency testing could be used with both parents and children. The reasoning of this study was to verify the suggesting belief of adolescents that may grow out of having this disorder, in which studies show that 50 to 80% of children that are diagnosed will continue to meet the ADHD criteria of having this disorder (Sprich, et. al., 2015). It is interesting that this type of research is focusing on the children and the families, except there are no implications of familial importance, while the adolescence or children are of an age to learn. This is where the future research could analyze the abilities of the parents and focus on how they are getting treated with therapy in the household. Therapies Used There are combined therapies used to assist in calming the hyperactivity and focusing of the mind. Complementary and Alternative Medicines (CAM) and pharmacological therapies are suggestive therapies in standard practices, although there is not enough research to specifically guide the foundations of practices. CAM practices are becoming a standard practice considering the natural stimulus the practices are (Searight et. al., 2012) CAM therapies are varied upon the use that includes homeopathy, dietary restriction and supplements, herbal products, biofeedback, and attention training (Searight et. al., 2012). Australian surveys show a 60% of CAM use by parents, thus incorporating questions to the parents or children to follow up on the results (Searight et. al., 2012). Another alternative for ADHD is the pharmacological use of stimulants and non-stimulants (short term or long term acting) (i.e.anti-depressants or blood pressure medications) for ADHD children or adults. These pharmacological alternatives are used with combination of the other therapies (i.e. CAM, nutrition, etc.) Parents are hesitant to use this due to the unknown symptoms it may cause the children’s health. Considering the low research engagement of parents using the multimodal effect show a positive influence with behavior with their child (Bussing, et.al., 2012). The education of evidence-based curriculum for the parents and the child are critical to assist showing the positive effects of the therapies. Educating the symptoms that will be seen with their child can increase the incentive to be more opt to improving and changing the home lifestyle to make it easier on the family relationship (Bussing, et.al., 2012). If there is a non-compliance issue in the family setting, adapting counseling techniques with how to improve communication between the child and the providers may expand the knowledge of the providers giving treatment information.
Along with the therapies provided, there are increasing amounts of non-pharmacological interventions that are being used and what research is learning about. Cognitive therapy interventions can involve medications, but can reach effective interventions by not having medications according to Sprich (2015). Cognitive therapy or also known as Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is a psychological treatment validated to be effective for issues involving depression, anxiety disorders, alcohol and drug use problems, marital problems, eating disorders and severe mental illness (Clinical Practice for the Treatment of