The Progress of Childhood Diseases
This research paper is about the progress of medicine in childhood diseases. The purpose of this paper will go over the childhood diseases and illness that control of human lives and morality rate. It on focus on childhood disease improvement of medicines and vaccinations that associate with certain illness and diseases. The discoveries in vaccination plays a role in treatments in different illness and diseases in childhood diseases. “Strategic vaccination campaigns have virtually eliminated diseases that previously were common in the United States, including diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis, smallpox, measles, mumps, rubella, and Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis. With the licensure of the combined diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine in 1949, state and local health departments instituted vaccination programs, aimed primarily at poor children. In 1955, the introduction of the Salk poliovirus vaccine led to federal funding of state and local childhood vaccination programs. In 1962, a federally coordinated vaccination program was established through the passage of the Vaccination Assistance Act–landmark legislation that has been renewed continuously and now supports the purchase and administration of a full range of childhood vaccines” (Center of Disease and Control, 1999). In the 20th century, childhood disease improves a great deal due to invention of vaccinations and clinical treatment and diagnosis. I will go over some of the disease, how the morality rate has decrease since the introduction of vaccinations and how the process childhood disease treatment has improved.There several childhood diseases that can be treated and prevention reoccurrence of disease.
There are some vaccine preventable diseases. Diseases that used to be common in this country and around the world, including polio, measles, diphtheria, pertussis (whooping cough), rubella (German measles), mumps, tetanus, rotavirus and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) can now be prevented by vaccination. Chickenpox was one of most common the childhood disease. The deadliest is the Diphtheria. Millions of children in the 19th and 20th century from the diphtheria had suffer and die from this disease. It is a bacteria infection that effect the airway that prevent an individual to breath. The sign and symptoms were barking cough and fever. It is still the most common in the Caribbean due to the lack of vaccination and/or improperly immunize. DTaP vaccine is preventive vaccine against the pertussis (whooping cough), tetanus for infant and school age children. Tdap and Td vaccine are the teens and adolescent. Polio is disease that affects the nerve and spinal cord which cause paralysis to lower extremities. Sign and symptoms are fever, sore throat and headache. The symptom is the same with the Meningitis. Polio and meningitis also have preventive vaccine. Both are transmitted by human by airborne.
Measles, mumps and rubella is most common Europe, Africa and Pacific area illness and virus due lack immunization and access to health care. Sign symptoms are fever, cough, muscle aches, tiredness and swollen salivary gland and sore throat. It is airborne disease and prevention is with MMR (Measles, Mumps and Rubella) vaccine. The first vaccine created to treat and decrease childhood disease is smallpox vaccine was invented in 1796 by a doctor name Edward Jenner. Since the invention of this vaccine, the morality rate had decrease. “Late in the 19th century, it was realized that vaccination did not confer lifelong immunity and that subsequent revaccination was necessary. The mortality from smallpox had declined, but the epidemics showed that the disease was still not under control. In the 1950s a number of control measures were implemented, and smallpox was eradicated in many areas in Europe and North America. The process of worldwide eradication of smallpox was set in motion when the World Health Assembly received a report in 1958 of the catastrophic consequences of smallpox in 63 countries” (NCBI, 2005). Vaccine is the most effect ways to decrease the raise of childhood disease and illness. Since the invention in of the first vaccine in 1796, morality rate has slowly decrease. Medical research and education for these vaccine to the population has increase immunize rate of individual in population.
In past, history has shown people was not able to afford healthcare, which provided immunization to kids and family to prevent disease and illnesses. Due to current the improvement of health, many families are able to receive the medical care and vaccine to prevent disease and illness. For children in school their requirement that the local state government require to have in order to attend school. These immunizations are important to prevent and spread of these illnesses within specific age group. Statics has show there are less report childhood disease has been reported due to vaccine administering in school age children. “Vaccines are effective not only because they protect individuals who have been vaccinated but also because they confer a broader protection for communities by establishing “herd immunity.” When sufficiently high proportion of a population is vaccinated against communicable diseases, the entire population can obtain protection. As the number of vaccinated people in a given population increases, the likelihood that a susceptible person will come into contact with an infected person decreases; it ultimately becomes difficult for a disease to maintain a chain of infection.
Although the vaccination rate required to achieve herd immunity varies by vaccine, it typically ranges from 80 percent to 95 percent of a given population” (Emily Oshima Lee, 2013).In recent years, mother was refusing to immunize their child due to talks and discussions in social media world, that state the vaccine were not safe. Vaccine cause medical defect, mental delay or autism. These increase of number of children not immunize due to the lack of education about the importance of vaccination against childhood decrease. “In 2010, California reported over 9000 cases of pertussis — more than the state had seen since 1947. Of these, 89% occurred among infants younger than 6 months, a group too young to be adequately immunized and largely dependent on herd immunity for protection from infection. Ten of these infants died from their infection” (Douglas S. Diekema, 2012). Local schools and government notice the increase of unimmunized children during 2010 but no case was reported until the report a child in California was diagnosis with MMR. Now the CDC, has increase the education and importance of the immunization for childhood vaccine. Most physician took this crisis to heart. They decide not to that care any child if they parent refuse to immunize their child. In this way, they are able prevent and help minimize the spread of these diseases.
They are factors that cause parents and families not immunized their child. There two of many factors are socioeconomics and lack of education. Most countries try several ways improving their health system by providing free healthcare and incentive to individual and families. Community health fair and mobile immunization care to door in low income area. “Providing accurate information about both risks and benefits is crucial to maintaining trust; interactions should include discussion of risks associated with both remaining unvaccinated and delaying certain vaccines and a reminder that vaccinations are important in part because effective treatments do not exist for most vaccine-preventable diseases. Effective communication requires understanding parent’s reasons for resisting vaccination” (Douglas S. Diekema, 2012). In other third world it still uprising in these childhood disease and illness due to lack of healthcare, access to immunization and poverty.
“Vaccines have the capacity to dramatically improve public health, and an individual’s refusal to get vaccinated increases the risk of infection for his or her entire community, including those infants and individuals with medical conditions who do not have the option to receive vaccination. Governments must therefore ensure that individuals who opt out of immunization are informed of the potential consequences of their decision” (Emily Oshima Lee, 2013). When providing the right resources and education to the population and communities in economic area, help reduce the miseducation and improve health of individual. Communication is the key in providing accuracy about vaccine to the public and free or afford healthcare proper medical to individual.