Sample Methods Limitations and Strengths
Abadie, R., et al. 40 people who inject drugs (PWID), who were of the age 18 or older Interviews with structured questionnaires, after the participants have been fully compensated Not being able to get results from those who refused to participate in the interviews, some of these people feared being exposed The study focused on the social bias aspect of gaining trust with drug users enough to receive qualitative information
Bastami, F., et al. 88 male drug users from 4 different rehabilitation centers Specific educational interventions for addicts in the community to help reduce the spread of HIV, through education. lack of cooperation between the addicts and officials, and the symptoms of infected participants did not allow them to answer some follow up questions Preventative behaviors increased in the intervention group when compared to the control group. Education and training on the topic amongst addicts in Iran resulted in lower numbers of new cases of HIV among the studied population.
Gilbert, L., et al. 306 randomly selected substance abusing women in New York City correctional programs Randomized controlled trial, it is used to determine the outcome of the specific intervention of the teaching modules provided to the women Includes not being able to generalize the findings to a specific type of community as the participants were extremely diverse, also this study does not assess psychological effects of the intervention Greater cost benefit in reducing HIV transmission in targeted population.
Hatch-Maillette, M. A., et al. Randomized participants who were drug abusers actively seeking treatment being educated about HIV transmission through having anal sex Participants assigned to complete the HIV-prevention intervention, then follow up with interview 30 days post-intervention. Strengths of this article include the comparison to a control group, however focusing on only heterosexual incidences in this case may be a weakness HIV education amongst the group of drug abusing women and men decreased the amount of unprotected Heterosexual Anal Sex (HAS)
Karimy, M., et al. 69 male injecting drug users Educational intervention where Data was collected through the use of an approved questionnaire, prior to the intervention and then 3 months after 4 sessions of educational intervention including, discussions, lectures, and vides. Takes into consideration of the statistics the amount of shared needles amongst drug users in the community. Some limitations of this study include not using information from drug users above the age of 59 Findings report an increase in education and awareness of HIV, and the percentage of the participants who got tested or HIV rose from 9% to 88%.
Kidd, J. D., et al. Participants included sexually active men (N = 430) and women (N = 377) who were seeking substance use disorder treatment Data collected from surveys from the population regarding the last 3 months of their drug use and sexual activity. Helps further develop prevention techniques throughout the drug using community, however the majority of the data comes from individual with one main sexual partner, therefor that included higher rates of unprotected sex. men in an Outpatient Drug Treatment, with higher education than just high school, are less likely to participate in unprotected sexual acts
Klassen, B. J., et al. Participants selected from Momentum Health Study, of 698 HIV-positive and HIV-negative gay men Vancouver Longitudinal bio-behavioral prospective cohort study Stigma within the community was a huge barrier for the homosexual men to make educated decisions Overall, it was found that there needs to be more support in the LGBT community in order to implement HIV prevention education strategies.
Tross, S., et al. This study included 515 sexually active women who have reported unprotected sex with more than one men, and also seeking drug treatment. Randomized trial on multiple sites, for 5 information sessions, using a gender specific approach on education of HIV transmission. There may be some bias in the data, as the majority of the women in treatment were white, about a quarter of the participants were African American, so it does not have great diversity in this portion of the data. In this study they find that depending on the drug of choice, the rates of HIV transmission differs.