Alcoholic drinks contain ethyl alcohol, when alcoholic beverages are consumed the ethyl alcohol is carried by the blood to the central nervous system, distressing its function. Intoxication ensues when the concentration of alcohol in the bloodstream reaches 0.09 %. Amongst other actions, alcohol intensifies the activity of the neurotransmitter GABA at key sites in the brain.
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GABA contributes to motor control, visualization, and various additional cortical functions.
Long-term excessive drinking can potentially induce nutritional problems. When an individual is an excessive drinker it can lower their need for food as alcohol can make an individual feel full. This can lead a chronic drinker to become undernourished, feeble, and susceptible to disease. This can then lead to an alcohol-related deficiency Korsakoff’s syndrome. Korsakoff’s syndrome is a disease marked by extreme confusion, memory loss, and additional neurological symptoms. Further symptoms include abnormal eye movements such as double vision or eyelid drooping. Loss of muscle coordination (ataxia) that can cause leg tremor. Confusion and loss of mental activity that can progress to coma and even death
Alcohol can cause a variety of negative effects on the individual consuming the beverage. It is imperative to mention that women who drink alcohol during pregnancy place their offspring at risk of being born with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Fetal alcohol syndrome is a constellation of problems in a child, including low birth weight, a pattern of abnormalities that can include intellectual disability disorder, hyperactivity, head and face deformities, heart deficiencies, and slow growth. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) is an umbrella term used to designate the assortment of consequences that can occur in an individual with prenatal alcohol exposure. These effects can have permanent repercussions including physical, psychological, behavior, and/or learning issues. Research indicated that there existed a variety of mental health problems, “During childhood, 60% of children with FASD have ADHD. During adulthood, most adults with FASD have clinical depression. The study revealed that 23% of the adults had attempted suicide, and 43% had threatened to commit suicide. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is classified as neurodevelopmental disorder in the functioning of the brain. This disorder tends to surface at birth or during early childhood and affects an individual’s behavior, concentration, memory, and/or capacity to learn.
There are a variety of methods that can assist individuals that suffer from alcoholism. Firstly, an individual can seek help from Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). AA is a self-help organization that provides support and guidance for people with alcohol use disorder. AA acknowledges alcoholism as a disease and takes the position “Once an alcoholic, always an alcoholic. AA offers peer support along with moral and spiritual guidelines to help individuals with problems controlling how much alcohol they drink, and who wish to stop drinking.
An additional form of self-help programs are residential treatment centers, or therapeutic communities. A residential treatment center or therapeutic community is a habitation where individuals previously dependent on drugs live, work, and socialize in a drug-free environment. These residential rehabs provide 24-hour, seven-day focus that assist in detoxifying under safe medical supervision as well as providing support, encouragement, and guidance as the road to a sober life is navigated. The participants are deprived of distractions and temptations to manage their addictions.
It also allows the individuals to acquire adaptive behaviors to support their new skills once they complete rehab and transition back to community life.
An alternative treatment conceivably the utmost prominent cognitive-behavioral approach to substance abuse is relapse-prevention training. Relapse-prevention training is a cognitive-behavioral approach to treating alcohol use disorder in which clients are taught to keep track of their drinking behavior, apply coping strategies in situations that typically prompt excessive drinking, and plan ahead for precarious situations and reactions. Firstly, therapists have their clients keep track of their drinking. People become more aware of the situations that place them at risk for excessive drinking by writing down the times, settings, emotional state, amongst other circumstances of their drinking. Secondly, therapists teach their clients coping strategies to utilize when such situations ascend. For instance, clients learn to distinguish when they are looming their drinking limits; to control their rate of drinking, exercise relaxation techniques, assertiveness skills, and other coping demeanors. Lastly, therapists impart clients to plan ahead of time. For example clients decide ahead of time how many drinks are suitable, what to drink, and under which circumstances to drink.
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