The researchers mentioned multiple limitations. While all the children in the study showed improved classroom compliance after implementation of the child play sessions, these changes were limited in a few of the children due to inconsistent compliance issues. Also, the changes made between the baseline and treatment phases was difficult to distinguish because this was a nonclinical sample and some of the children at baseline had only minor compliance issues. Future research should include post-intervention follow-up measures to provide an evaluation of the extent of maintenance of compliance effects after play sessions. (Ducharme and Levine, 2013)
Anderson, Caldarella, Hansen, et. al. (2017) conducted a study to examine the effects of a playground social skills intervention on the positive interaction of kindergarten students exhibiting socially withdrawn behavior. The three students were socially withdrawn and behind their peers in developing social skills. The effects of the intervention were evaluated using a multiple baseline design.
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The dependent variable was social interaction. Anderson et al. (2017) defined the dependent variable as the target student engaging with a peer by initiating positive interaction on the playground. Observers were required to memorize the definition of the dependent variable at 100% accuracy and participate in a trial observation in which they were at least 85% consistent with the researcher in documenting positive interaction. The independent variable of this study was the playground intervention consisting of four components. Participants were taught to use social skills on the playground with various lessons. Adult mediation was also used and was responsible for observing each student’s social interaction during recess and provided encouragement to engage with other peers. Students were also taught how to self-evaluate their behavior. The final component was parent involvement through home notes. (Anderson et al., 2017)
The researchers collected data on social interaction using a 10 second partial interval recording method during both the baseline and intervention phase. The data showed a functional relationship between the intervention and increased positive social interaction for all three participants. During the baseline phase, positive social interaction was observed 26% with the first and second participant and 34% with the third participant. During the intervention phase, positive social interaction was observed 54% with the first participant, 64% with the second and 67% with the third. (Anderson et al., 2017)
There were several limitations suggested by the researchers. First, due to the small number of participants, replications are needed to strengthen the generalizability of the findings. Second, the relatively short duration of treatment may also have been a limiting factor to the results achieved. Researchers suggested that future research should lengthening treatment duration to increase exposure to the intervention could increase the likelihood of behavior changes being effectively measured and maintained over time. (Anderson et al., 2017)
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