Movement in the Early Nineteenth Century

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Updated: Mar 28, 2022
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The early nineteenth century, the middle class rose to be the most important movement of this period. An organization of middle-class social reformers tried to take charge of modifications that were made by the Market Revolution. So the reformers created a culture distinct from the best property owners or of the workers. Men in the mid-1800s were considered to be the only ones to be income earners, regularly working outside of their homes. While their wives transitioned to guardians of the homes and they were called the cult of female domesticity.

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As with any large group in America like the middle class, shopkeepers, clerks, and managers were usual active and formed the Second Great Awakening. The Second Great Awakening was a religious revival which began in the West, however, moved to the Northeast and then the South. This lasted from the 1790s throughout the 1840s.Instead of finding someone qualified for a job, a politician would award a job based off the campaign the person has presented. They called that the spoils system for as in, to the victor go the spoils. With Jackson’s victory in 1828, he dismissed multiple federal employees and replaced them with Jacksonians, circled with like-minded men. Nevertheless, the only person who could not be fired was Vice President John C. Calhoun.

The battle between Jackson and Calhoun was legendary, it became known as the nullification crisis. Calhoun created the nullification to protect the rights in a government based on the rule of the majority. Jackson emphasized that the Union was not independent, that no state had the right to reject the federal law only the Supreme Court was able to do that. To show how serious they were taking this threat, in Congress the Jacksonians passed the Force Bill which said the president had any authority to use the army or navy to put down any rebellion.

Despite that Jackson’s relationship with the Native American was quite complicated with the Indian Removal Act making all Native Americans move to the west of the Mississippi. As he defended the decision he made, he believed that all Indian presence was already up for extinction. Cotton displayed the main priority in every way. Southerners recognized they could get wealthy off cotton and could potentially becoming cotton farmers. However, with growing cotton required slaves and land so Southerners brought slaves and transported them to the southwestern regions in the United States. Landless white men worked as laborers on farmers or frontiersmen, these men were below yeoman farmers but above the slaves. The life for slaves was difficult, with the cruel grind of forced labor, with the daily constant of the threat of abuse upon them all. Most of the slaves were field hands; house servants cooking, cleaning, and taking care of their masters’ children; as well blacksmiths, carpenters, and ironworkers. Additionally, all slaves were a property that could be sold, or exchanged by their owners.

Americans created four territories in the West: California, Texas, Otah, and Oregon between 1820-1844. Americans started looking for land to start growing cotton it was a bit doubtful to live in Texas since it was a Spanish colony. Nevertheless, Mexico appeared less strong than Spain, in the 1820s Americans took a chance to settle down in Texas. Texans had victory over Santa Anna with Sam Houston surprising Mexicans forces at San Jacinto. Although Texans saw themselves as Americans and wanted the United States to claim Texas. Americans settled in the next region that was Oregon. After Britain slowly retreated, Americans started to migrate into Oregon’s Willamette River valley. “Manifest Destiny” meant that Americans were exploring their chances to secure some land they were looking for and being their destiny to take the land they were searching for years.

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Movement in the Early Nineteenth Century. (2021, Apr 02). Retrieved from