Installation of Long Railways
How it works
During the mid-19th century, a process known as the Second Industrial Revolution took place in Europe, which will mean the victory of machinery and large industry, it represented the increase in production and the expansion of the world market for products. This period also marks the development of Germany and the United States as industrial powers, together with France and the United Kingdom.
According to Engelman, The need for massive industry was obvious, in the United States, in order to reach California’s port cities like San Francisco and to expedite the extraction of gold from the mines, railroad tracks would need to be laid across the plains to reach the Pacific and open up trade network. Completed in 1869, the Transcontinental Railroad served as a vital link for trade, commerce, and travel between the East and West of the United States.(Boundless.com, n.d.)
Installation of long railways provided work for thousands of people, as well as the construction of wagons and locomotives, which also demanded an increase in the production of the materials with which they were built. England specialized in this industry and exported trains all over the world. The purchasing countries were linked to the British manufacturers for the supply of spare parts and technical personnel.
With the new railroads, the production increased leading to the search for new fuels. Oil and electric power allowed to create new machines and faster transports driven by gasoline or electric motors.
How it works
Another invention was the Electricity, Public lighting, which was possible thanks to the the work of Tomas Alva Edison (1847-1913). Thomas Edison’sinvention of the electric lightbulbin 1879 became the means by which large factories could be illuminated, extending shifts and increasing manufacturing output.(Kelly, 2018). The street lighting improved the conditions of daily life, in the whole world. This made it possible for people to not only work all day, but continue working at night. Years after the discovery, in 1866 the first large hydroelectric installation was started at the Niagara Falls.
Another great discovery was the production of oils such as petroleum. With the use of petroleum the explosion engines were invented, the evolution of the internal combustion engine appeared in many industrialized countries thanks to the cultural interchange. These discoveries also allowed the build the first Diesel engine, prior to this type of engine it was used the steam engine used for transportation but didn’t allow travel to long distance steam engine replacement machine by employing a new fuel, which is petroleum . The steam engine as we think of it from the Industrial Revolution was largely replaced by electricity and the internal combustion engine using gas and diesel (petroleum derivate).
The telephone, another great invention of this revolution, invented by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876. This made it possible for people to communicate all over the world instead of having to travel days to see them or wait for a letter to reach them. To add, the Wright brothers had their first powered piloted plane flight, they used a device that was heavier than air, the airplane making it was possible to fly. This vehicle began to be used as a combat weapon, after the First World War. In 1919, the first aerial crossing of the Atlantic was made. It was also used for quicker transportation and to transport products, later it was improved to be used for leisure.
As a result of industrialization, this world became a worldwide market of dominant countries, which produced products thanks to all the equipment and machinery developed during this era, and dependent countries, became the suppliers of raw materials. The fact that manufacturers in the dominant countries sold the products to the smaller countries at higher cost, represented a favorable income for the countries that were industrialized. This expressed an economic domination over the countries that only supplied the raw materials, domination that it ended up being political.