Homelessness in the United States

Homelessness is a social problem that has long plagued the United States and surrounding Countries for centuries. It is an economic and social problem that has affected people from all walks of life, including children, families, veterans, and the elderly. Kilgore (2018). States homelessness is believed to have affected an estimated amount of 2.5-3.5 million people each year in the United States alone. Recent evidence suggests economic conditions have increased the number of people affected by homelessness in the United States.

Biel, M.G., Gilhuly, D.K., Wilcox, N.A., & Jacobstein, D. (2014). Family homelessness: A deepening crises in urban communities. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 53, 12, 1247-1250. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/j.jaac.2014.08.015

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Collins, C.C., D’Andrea, R., Dean, K., & Crampton, D. (2018). Service providers perspective on permanent supportive housing for families. Family in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Social Services, 97, 27

Retrieved from https://doi/10.1606/1044-3894.2016.97.27

Authors, Biel, Gilhuly, Wilcox & Jacobstien, provides a significant amount of information that addresses and support the issues of homeless families, children, and young adults, the reasons of how people become homeless, the risk factors related homelessness, as well as the challenges confronting teenagers and young adults who are living on their own. The authors explain when families are bounded and emotionally displaced from their foundational support they become homeless, causing them to live in shelters or conditions not suitable for human habitation. The authors’ data and references provided explain what they believe a model family comprises. They feel a model family consist of a single parent household usually a young mother with possibly two kids under the age of six. The authors express that about 90% of these young women were victims of violence. The references provided underpins the title and addresses the circumstances and results of homelessness with families, children, young adults, and the hazardous factors and difficulties related to homeless in the United States.

Brush, B., Gultekin, L.E., & Grim, E.G. (2016). The data dilemma in family homelessness. Journal of Healthcare for the Poor and Underserved. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 27(3), 1048-1052, Retrieved from https://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.liberty.edu/10.1353/hpu.2016/0122.

In this article, Brush, Gultekin, & Grim in their report stated that the U.S. Division of Housing and Urban Development distributed its first national profile of vagrancy in 1984, featuring the greatest of the issue over the U.S., the creation of America’s impoverished, and the degree to which asylums and programs were meeting their needs. The authors state regardless of whether more substantial ways to deal with checking the quantity of vagrant family’s growth, there is yet the matter of tending to the novel issues and conditions of families encountering vagrancy. The majority of which have stayed steady during recent decades. They believe the literature provided supports the associations between relational injury, neglect, and family vagrancy. Domestic brutality (DV), specifically, remains one of the primary sources of vagrancy and lodging precariousness for single mothers today. Families and kids encountering vagrancy and unreliable lodging have a higher than average chance of being exposed to mishandling and negligence and is prone to observe brutal actions more often than their peers. The authors state there is additional proof that unending and extreme savagery, restricted encountering groups of people, and poor collaborations with those in positions to assist or anticipate progressing lodging. However, perennial exposures of injury and viciousness show in continuous cycles of household viciousness, the improvement of injury-related wellbeing conditions, incessant lodging insecurity, family interruption, precariousness, and debilitated social networks.

Kilgore, P.E. (2013). Epidemiology of homelessness in the united states, (2013). Annals of Epidemiology, 23, 9, 594. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annepidem2013.06.070

This article provides references that articulate and support of the causes and effects of incidence, distribution and possible control of homelessness in the United States. The information provided a clear understanding of how the author believes that homelessness has affected approximately 2.5-3.5 million have expanded the number of people in the United States alone. However, recent proof has indicated that financial stipulations have expanded the number of individuals affected by homelessness. The objective of her analysis was to d escribe trends in homelessness and discuss the methodological methods to evaluate the comorbidity associated with homelessness. Considering the reviewed information in 2009, 63% of American people were affected by homelessness, and an approximate 62% of those affected lived in safe-houses with the the title as well as the methodological approaches evaluating homelessness in the United States.

Mago, V.K., Morden, H.K., Fritz, C., Wu, T., Namezi, S., Geranmayeh, P., Chattopadhyay, R., & Dabbaghian, V. (2013). Analyzing the impact of social factors on homelessness: A Fuzzy Cognitive Map approach. BMC Medical Informative and Decision Making, 13,94, Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6947-13-94

Through utilizing the fuzzy cognitive map, the authors were able to permit scientists to build digital worlds in which some of the composite and interdependent concepts of a framework captured and their intercommunication or causal relationships modeled. The FCM is a system utilized for demonstrating reliance between ideas and reality. Which was accomplished graphically speaking to the causal thinking connections between vague or un-fresh ideas? Through system examination of the fuzzy cognitive map, the authors were able to verify that education applies the most power in the model and subsequently impacts the action and multifaceted nature of a social issue, for example, homelessness. They found the system worked by displaying the perplexing social arrangement of homelessness represented the reality for the example situation created. The analysis affirmed the system worked and investigated peer-reviewed, academic literature is a responsible establishment at which point to construct the model.

Martin, E.J. (2015). Affordable housing, homelessness, and mental health: What health care policy needs to address.

Journal of Health and Human Services Administration, 38,1,67-68. Retrieved from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/24459676

Throughout this article Martin, provided a significant amount of compelling references that links affordable housing, homelessness, poverty, mental health, and health care to the United States economic crisis that caused many of Americans to become homeless. These references linked and provided detailed information on the, policies, issues and reasons of how many American citizens failed into economic hardship. A hardship that left many families, children, individuals, and veterans homeless. The article references give detailed descriptions of how each of these policies, issues and causes of poverty, affordable housing, homelessness, mental health, and health care connects and relates to one another. Giving a clear and concise understanding of the articles title, policies, causes and effects of the economic crisis that plagued the American people.

Morton, M.H., Dworsky, A., Matiadho, J.L., Curry, S.R., Schlueter, D., Chavez, R., & Farrell, A. F (2018). Prevalence and correlates of youth homelessness in the United States. Journal of Adolescent Health, 62(1), 14-21, Elsevier Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth2017.10.006.

In this article, the authors address the prevalence and incidence of youth homelessness. The pervasiveness and frequency of youth vagrancy uncover a unique requirement for aversion and youth-driven frameworks and administration, and besides, methodologies to address the unbalance dangers of specific subpopulations. By utilizing this type of broad-based telephone review, the authors requested family units and individual reports on various kinds of youth vagrancy. They were able to solicit families and own reviews on adolescent homelessness. They accumulated reviews on youth 13-17 in ages and young adults 18-25, and a follow-up review with a subsample of (n=150), supplied additional records on formative experiences and enabled adjustments for inclusion errors. The results showed predominance rates were comparative crosswise over rural and nonrural provinces. A higher danger of vagrancy was among youthful parents, black, Hispanics, and lesbians, gays, promiscuous, or transgender (LGBT) youth, and the individuals who did not finish their education. Occurrence rates were about half as high as predominance rates.

Schinka, J.A., Leventhal, K.C., Lapcevic, W.A., & Casey, R. (2018). Mortality and cause of death in younger homeless veterans. Public Health Report, 133(2), 177-181. Retrieved from https://eprozy.liberty.edu/10.1177/0033354918755709.

In this article, the authors investigated the records of the United States Department of Veterans Affairs on homelessness and health care. They were able to identify the status of 23,898 homeless veterans living’ opposed to 65,198 non-veterans ages 30-54, from 2003-2004. To determine the status of their survival, the National Death Index used for the statistical purpose of comparing the survival rates and causes of death for the two groups during a ten year follow up review. The National Death Index is a database of death records on the document in state vital statistics offices for the descriptive purposes in medicinal and wellbeing research. In their findings, they found young and moderately aged homeless veterans had a higher death rate than non- homeless veterans. Their results showed vagrancy considerately increased 34.9 % opposed to 18.2 mortality rate in non-homeless veterans, with the lowest survival rate at 58% among older homeless veterans age 60.1%.

Somerville, P, (2013). Understanding homelessness. Housing, Theory, and Society, 30(4), 384-415, Retrieved from https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14036096.2012.756096.

In an article, Somerville, states homelessness is no longer just a matter of lack of shelter or residence. It entails deprivation throughout a range of different dimensions and defined with references to the manner in which changing the structural stipulations influence most severely upon precise groups, either because of a natural role of fundamental drawbacks or because of some additional vulnerability that renders individuals ill-equipped to cope with these changes. Homeless people face risk because of personal environment, health care factors, and because of these issues homeless people have a higher risk for medical treatment of substance abuse disorders psychological illness, and low social support. Which are all contributing factors for readmission due to the environmental health challenges they face?

Tsai, J. & Rosenheck, R.A; (2015). Risk Factors for Homelessness Among US Veterans, Epidemiologic Reviews, Volume 37, Issue 1, 1 January 2015, Pages 177″195

Retrieved from https://doi.org.ezproxy.liberty.edu/10.1093/epirev/mxu004. After the Civil War, homelessness has always been a significant issue in the United States especially over the last 30 years. It is a social issue that has impacted the lives of many United States veterans for decades. In this article, the authors utilized a comparative study of homeless veterans opposed to the non-homeless veteran to identify the risk factors associated with vagrancy amongst veterans in America. In their studies, they found several risk factors across both thorough and less thorough investigations. They found the most sever to be Substance abuse disorders and psychological illnesses to be the most common factors of the 15 the studies, and poverty, low income. And a lack of family, friends, and community support to be less severe. In this article, the authors provided a significant amount of proof to support their findings as well as their title.

Tyler, K.A. & Schmitz, R.M. (2013). Family histories and multiple transitions among homeless young adults: Pathways to homelessness. Children and Youth Services Review, 35(10), 1719-1726. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1016/jchildyouth.2013.07.014

Related cite https://www.deepdyve.com/lp/elsevier/family-histories-and-multiple-transsitions-among-homeless-young-adults-V6GJUJqhWy

In a longitudinal research project led by Tyler & Schmitz, they aimed to discover and understand the reasons why young people become homeless. In their study, they researched and followed 40 homeless young adults ages 19-21, for three years with follow up meeting led at three-month interims. In their finding, three vital topics rose, topics that were important for understanding the pathways of young adults to vagrancy. The first topic addressed was the early history of the family which gives the catalyst to why numerous young people chose to leave home looking for other living conditions and along these lines helped sort and purpose their different transitions. The second topic discussed the kinds of transitions and gives explanations behind why young people leave home. The third topic investigate the different pathways to vagrancy that young people encounter. The data provided supported the authors title and the information provide was clear and concise.

Homelessness is a social concern that has changed the lives of millions of innocent children, causing them to live without food and shelter that we all at one time or another have taken for granted. Biel, Gilhuly, Wilcox & Jacobstein, (2010). States about 1.6 million kids in the United States will encounter vagrancy, and families at present make up more than 33% of the destitute populate. There are numerous reasons why individuals turned out to be destitute, an absence of pay is by all accounts one of the significant reasons for vagrancy in the United States. Martin, (2015). States the United States economic emergencies have significantly influenced the lives of numerous individuals in the United States alone and has brought pay decrease, work cutbacks, liquidations, and soring dispossessions, that has dived numerous people and families into serious monetary hardship, especially those in low pay networks. Homelessness is a painful reality that has affected many individuals in the United States, regardless of race, age, gender, or religious belief, and has plagued the United States citizens for many centuries. However, scientists contend in spite of programs that aim to give brief and transitional safe haven to vagrancy’s, there should be an expansion in open perpetual lodging and in government lodging assets.

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