History and Culture of Malaysia
Malaysia is known as a multiethnic nation joined with Malays, Chinese and Indian. As indicated by (Asmah, 1983), Malay alludes to an individual who can talk Malay language fluently. Besides, Malay is an individual who exercises on Malay tradition and hone Islam (Asmah, 1983). Malays are known as the dominant ethnics in Malaysia with a total percentage of 50.1% (Department of Statistics Malaysia, 2010). According to (Chow-Hou et al., 1995), Indonesia, Thailand and Singapore is viewed as less traditionalist nation compared to Malaysia.
Discrimination, stereotypes and prejudice are the elements discussed within sexism in advertising regarding the resistant to sex in advertisements. The look on how a man and women should be advertised is an idea invented by Sexism in Advertisements. The idea are implemented for both man and women but it focuses more on women. The ultimate purpose of sexist advertisement is to grab peoples’ attention. According to (Bello et al 1983, LaTour 1990 & Fetto 2001) generally there are more positive effects on male audiences than female audiences when using sexual appeal in advertisements. Further, Parker & Furnham (2007) stated that compared to women, men recalls sexual advertisements more better. Other than that, it is also stated that men are more favorable attitude to such advertisement (Judd & Alexander, 1983; LaTour & Henthorne, 1994; Putrevu, 2008) and towards the advertised brands (LaTour & Henthorne, 1993). Skorek and Dunham (2012) stated that although there are very limited studies on why such event takes place, yet man’s self- esteem increases due to the subjection of idealized women’s image. Hence, it can be concluded that a women in sexual posture increases the self- enhancing on man. Apart from that, it can be seen that a male’s targeted audience are much more lesser than female nudity. Female nudity in an advertisement increases the target audience (Jones et al., 1998; LaTour, 1990; LaTour et al, 1990). Judd and Alexander (1983), LaTour and Henthorne (1993) stated a point that targeting women in nudity brings harm to the women’s. When targeting men it will in general be more effective to show nudity of a female model than a male model (Jones et al., 1998). It is crucial to have the values that are important to the group rather than just looking into demographics of target audience. Although there are less positive effects on women in sexuality advertisement, (LaTour,1990) stated that feminism may be the negative factor of rather than other reasons such as for women with conservative values. Patterson et al., (2009) p.10, mentioned that an advertisement have to leave strong concrete impression on the customer’s minds. Because this allows them to recognize as well as to remember the product or brands in an easy way rather than the companies.
The Independent Variables of this study is sexiest advertisement. Dianoux & Linhart (2010) & Sharma & Gupta (2015) suggested that women will be less attracted to nudity commercial compare to men where men will be more attracted to nudity commercial. Sawang (2010) & Lascus et al., (2016) suggest that Asians will be less desirable to see sexual cues in commercial compare to Americans. Americans like to have more sexual cues in commercial due to their cultural acceptability. Sawang (2010) documented that in a society, their culture and their country’s perspective are able to influence the society to accept commercials with sexual cues.
Khan & Munoz (2015) suggest that women are attracted to sexual cues commercials only when it’s a luxury product. For instance, perfumes. Luxury perfumes with sexual cues commercial can affect the women’s attitude to purchase the product. Besides, (Grazer & Thiyagarajan et al., 2012) suggested that when an organization use an average amount of sexual cues in commercial instead of extreme level of sexual cues, it actually leads customers to like the product. Apart from that, when the customers are more liberal towards commercial which has sexual cues it actually plays a major role in promoting products. Opposed to this view, (Walker & Ziad 2011, Klug & Ellis 2012, Nooh et al., 2014, Raghuram et al., 2015 & Lull & Bushman 2015) suggested that there are no statistically significant effects on the usage of sexual cues in commercial on consumer purchase preference where the usage of sexual cues in commercial are identify as offensive for customers and customers begin to have a negative point of view towards commercials with sexual cues especially if the commercial include straight-forward sexual cues.
Culture plays a pivotal job in recognizing the sorts of appeal that should be utilized in commercial. As indicated by (Brotto et al., 2005), contrast with western culture, individuals with Asian legacy have a less sexual experienced. This is because, less liberal mentalities and lower rates of want, excitement, and sexual receptivity. Asia is focusing on the development of modern Muslim consumer. Consumers in countries such as Saudi Arabia, Morroco, Turkey, Iran and Malaysia has a great purchasing power. For example, in targeting Muslim consumers, organizations need to comprehend and value the remarkable needs of Islam before entering the market, particularly when there is a predominance of Muslim in country like Malaysia. Organizations that is unsuccessful to comprehend and value the remarkable need of Islam before entering the market will frequently affront their consumers. This is because, the organization or marketers does not comprehend the sensitivity of religion. Extra attention needed for advertisers to comprehend their job concerning religion in the market where religion is fundamental to a culture (Cornwell et al., 2005). Religion as stressed by Fam et al., (2004) assumes that it is a vital job for consumers where there is an impact on how consumer uses product and services. It cannot be denied that there is still a firm religious conservatism and loyalty (Rice and Al-Mossawi, 2002) where it makes them less alluring to advertisers. Additionally, culture likewise assumes a critical job in seeing things from religion. In Malaysia, to control the content of commercials, Malaysian government has altered the Malaysian Advertising Code of Ethics for Television and Radio by restricting the utilization of sexual cues to sell items and administrations (Advertising Standards Authority Malaysia, 2008). Furthermore, advertisers should not have scenes where model expose their body and the model should be covered their body from neck area till below the knee (Johnson, 2007). Apart from that, advertisers should also not have scenes such as sanitary napkin, intimacy and kissing between grown-ups (Johnson, 2007).
The Attitude-Towards-the-Ad model by Edell and Burke (1987) is a theoretical framework. This model has been used frequently to assess consumer’s reaction regarding commercial. The Dependent Variable will be the outcome of sexiest advertisement and The Attitude Towards-the-Ad model by Edell and Burke (1987) will be used. The Attitude-Towards-the-Ad model plays a role as a tool to analyze the impact of advertising on consumer’s reaction. At the end, the judgements, feelings and reaction regarding commercial, as well as the beliefs about the brand, result in the overall reaction and buying purpose towards the brand. The process may also end up in forming beliefs about the brand directly after being exposed to the commercial (Schiffman, Wisenblit & Kanuk, 2010).
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